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Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2022-09-21
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and video provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and in analyzing physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
Training / Education

Critical Concepts of Tolerance Stacks ASME Y14.5 1994, 2009, 2018 – Foundational Level

2022-04-04
Using tolerance stacks ensures that parts fit together properly, reducing scrap and rework, thereby increasing value. This 2-day foundational-level course explains how to use tolerance stacks to analyze product designs and how to use geometric tolerances in stacks. You’ll learn the essential methods used for creating 1D part and assembly tolerance stacks, including these six critical concepts: 1. The importance of stacks 2. The two-column stack method using the SAE stack spreadsheet 3. Determining a stack path 4. Creating 1D part and assembly stacks 5. Interpreting GD&T 6.
Technical Paper

Driving Behaviour Analysis Software for Data-Driven Path Planning Functionalities for Automated Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0218
Autonomous driving is currently one of the most challenging Artificial Intelligence (AI) problems as it requires combination of state-of-the-art solutions in multiple areas including computer vision, sensor fusion, control theory and software engineering. Deep learning has been pivotal to solving some of these problems, especially in computer vision. This enabled some autonomous vehicle companies started leveraging the benefits of deep learning for creating smooth, natural, human-like motion planning systems. In particular, the plethora of driving data captured from modern cars is a key enabler for training data-driven path planning systems. , Developing deep learning-powered systems relies heavily on big and high-quality data required for training of the models, in which the intrinsic statistics of the data that the model is trained on can result in different agent behavior in different scenarios.
Technical Paper

Padded Self-Piercing Riveting (P-SPR) on magnesium high pressure die casting

2022-03-29
2022-01-0249
Padded self-piercing riveting (P-SPR) is a newly developed multi-material joining technology to enable less ductile materials to be joined by self-piercing riveting (SPR) without cracking. A deformable and disposable pad was employed to reduce the stress distribution on the bottom surface by supporting the whole bottom sheet continuously during rivet setting process. To verify the P-SPR process, 2.0mm thick 6061-T6 wrought aluminum was joined with 3.2mm thick coated AM60B magnesium high pressure die casting (HPDC) by using 1.0mm thick dual-phase 600 (DP600) steel as the pad. Regular SPR processes with 2 different die geometries were studied as a comparison. Compared to the regular SPR processes, P-SPR demonstrated advantages on coating protection, crack mitigation and joint strength.
Technical Paper

Game Theory and Reinforcement Learning based Smart Lane Change Strategies

2022-03-29
2022-01-0221
With the development of science and technology, breakthroughs have been made in the fields of intelligent algorithms, environmental perception, chip embedding, scene analysis, and multi-information fusion, which together prompted the wide attention of society, manufacturers and owners of autonomous vehicles. As one of the key issues in the research of autonomous vehicles, the research of vehicle lane change algorithm is of great significance to the safety of vehicle driving. This paper focuses on the conflict of interest between the lane-changing vehicle and the target lane vehicle in the fully autonomous driving environment, and proposes the method of coupling kinematics and game theory and reinforcement learning based optimization, so that when the vehicle is in the process of lane changing game, the lane-changing vehicle and the target lane vehicle can make decisions that are beneficial to the balance of interests of both sides.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle State Segmentation and Failure Prediction Based on Big Data

2022-03-29
2022-01-0223
Vehicle failure prediction technology is an important part of PHM(Prognostic and Health Management) technology, which is of great significance to the safety of vehicles and to improve driving safety. Based on the vehicle operating data collected by the on-board terminal (T-box) of the telematics system, the research on the state of vehicle failure is conducted. First, this paper conducts statistical analysis on vehicle historical fault data. Preprocessing procedures such as cleaning, integration, and protocol are performed to group the data set. Then, three indexes including recency(R) frequency(F), and days(D) are selected to construct a vehicle security status subdivision system, and K -Means algorithm is utilized to divide different vehicle categories from the perspective of vehicle value. Labeled information of vehicles in different security status are further established.
Technical Paper

Early Detection of Engine Anomalies – A Case Study for AI-based Integrated Vehicle Health Management

2022-03-29
2022-01-0225
The increasing complexity of vehicle electronics and software is bringing an abundance of vehicle health related challenges, including quality issues and increasing costs of warranty claims, recalls, maintenance, and downtime. This negatively impacts both OEM and fleet profitability, user experience, and end customer costs. In order to reduce OEM costs and the total cost of ownership for consumers and fleets, new methods are needed to detect, predict, and diagnose vehicle health issues. Existing vehicle health management solutions rely on diagnostics trouble codes (DTC) and limited amounts of telematics data. These solutions can detect known failure modes using hard-coded signal behavior validation rules that are frequently based on thresholds. They also provide alerts based on pre-defined error codes. However, they are unable to detect and diagnose unforeseen failure modes that do not have hard-coded rules, nor can they prognose future vehicle health issues.
Technical Paper

Reinforcement learning enhanced New Energy Vehicle Dynamic Subsidy Strategies

2022-03-29
2022-01-0226
In recent years, game theory and reinforcement learning have become very popular research fields in today's society. As the most strategic analysis and optimization research method, they can be used in the study of subsidy strategy of China's new energy automobile industry to solve the problems caused by the government's subsidy of new energy vehicles. This paper studies the evaluation methods and strategy optimization methods of government subsidy strategies in different situations, and applies them to the subsidy strategies and other strategy optimization problems of new energy vehicles in China. Firstly, based on game theory, this paper studies the evaluation method of government subsidy strategy in the case of "double equivalence" and "one strong and one weak" by constructing the game process of "double equivalence" enterprises and "one strong and one weak" enterprises.
Technical Paper

Modern Product Development Platform for Living Products in Perpetual Systems

2022-03-29
2022-01-0230
In 1930, John Maynard Keynes predicted, that due to software and automation, 15-hour work weeks would be a reality by the end of the century. While that envisioned “utopia” has not been realized, Mr. Keynes did have the radical vision to imagine a pretty radical low code highly automated future - one to which the future of software in mobility arguably depends on. So, what went wrong? Well, its not about as much about what went wrong but about how adoption is taking place and how it needs to change. In any software development, no matter where in history, as soon as software testing became a hot topic, automation tools started springing up and then "selective parts" that were iterative and time-consuming in the software were automated away. This begs several questions. The first and obvious, why automate these parts - and the second - whether software developers are making themselves obsolete by building automation tools.
Technical Paper

A study on editing method of road load spectrum of automobile rubber isolator using time-frequency domain methods

2022-03-29
2022-01-0272
In order to enhance the efficiency of durability testing of automobile parts, a time-frequency domain accelerated editing method of road load time series of rubber mount on powertrain was discussed. Based on Stockwell Transform method and Accumulative Power Spectral Density, a new time-frequency domain accelerated editing method (ST-APSD) was proposed. The accumulative power spectral density was obtained by ST of the load time series signal of automobile powertrain rubber mounting force which is acquired by the real vehicle in the test field. Based on the accumulative power spectral density, the threshold value was proposed to identify and delete the small damage load fragments, and then the acceleration spectrum was obtained.
Technical Paper

The investigation of a contact and element-based approach for Cohesive zone modelling in the simulation of Delamination propagation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0259
The CAE industry always moves towards new ways to improve the productivity, efficiency and to reduce the solution times. Conventional method of Cohesive Zone Modelling has drawback of higher computation and modelling time. Due to this problem, sometimes Engineers need to avoid simulations and rely only on some sort of approximation of crack from previous designs. This approximation can lead to either product failure or overdesign of the product. A new approach is discussed in this paper to simulate crack initiation and propagation with Cohesive Zone Modelling. Conventional method uses Cohesive zone modelling with Hex or Penta elements by assigning material with cohesive properties, which increases computation and modelling time. The new approach models Cohesive zone as contact between two bodies, thus eliminating the need to use cohesive elements which will essentially reduce the computation time as well as modelling time.
Technical Paper

Thermomechanical behavior of an automotive exhaust aftertreatment application

2022-03-29
2022-01-0277
An aftertreatment system is the back-end component of an automotive exhaust system, used mainly to reduce pollutant emissions. This system is exposed to high thermal loads which can exceed temperatures of 900 oC , usually they operate at temperatures under 600 oC - 700 oC, depending of the engine application. The durability assessment of a system under thermomechanical loads can be challenging due to the complexity of the technical problem, which involves complex material behavior at high temperatures and results in high thermomechanical strains and stresses. This study presents a computational approach for the lifetime assessment of an exhaust aftertreatment system subjected to thermomechanical loading. The method is composed of a fluid flow analysis to compute the temperature fields which are mapped to a mechanical analysis combined with a nonlinear elastoviscoplastic material behavior. Lastly, the lifetime of the overall assembly is assessed through a fatigue analysis.
Technical Paper

Technical Keynote: Durability Validation for Variable Vehicle Usage

2022-03-29
2022-01-0255
Durability engineering for vehicles is about relating real operational loading to the actual strength of the product and its components. In the first part of this presentation, we show how to calculate failure probabilities and safety factors based on the load and strength distributions. We discuss the uncertainty within the estimations, which is considerably large in case of extremely small failure probabilities as required for safety critical components. In the second part, we focus on modelling and simulating the loads based on real vehicle usage, such that the resulting statistics allows to understand and quantify the usage variability. The idea is, to simulate thousands of vehicle life spans of, say, 300.000 km or 15.000 h of operation each. The input data for such simulations typically consists of a combination of geographic data (like road network, topography, road conditions, traffic data, and points of interest) and properly segmented rich data from measurement campaigns.
Technical Paper

A fatigue life prediction method of rubber material for Automobile vibration isolator under road load spectrum

2022-03-29
2022-01-0253
Automobile rubber isolator was subjected to random load cycle for a long time in the service process, and its main rubber material for vibration isolation was prone to fatigue failure. Since the traditional Miner damage theory overlooked the load randomness, it had a prediction error problem. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of rubber fatigue life, the traditional Miner damage theory was modified by random uncertainty theory to predict the rubber fatigue life under random load. Firstly, the rubber dumbbell-shaped test column, which was vulcanized from rubber materials commonly used in vibration isolators, was taken as the research object. The uniaxial fatigue test of rubber under different strain amplitudes and strain mean values was carried out. Then the fatigue characteristic curve of rubber with equivalent strain amplitude as the damage parameter was established.
Technical Paper

Effect of geometric parameters on folding of thin-walled steel tube under axial compression

2022-03-29
2022-01-0264
This study investigated the plastic deformation behavior of 304 stainless steel thin-walled tubes under axial compression by means of numerical calculation and theoretical analysis. It was found that the plastic deformation length of thin-walled tube determined the formability of folds and the work done in the whole axial compression process. To reveal the relation between the range of plastic deformation length and tube geometry parameters, regression equations were established using the quadratic regression orthogonal design method. Experiments were conducted to validate the equations. The process windows for forming a single fold and tube joining at ends had been printed ultimately. The results showed that the regression equations can accurately predict the range of plastic deformation length for forming a single fold.
Technical Paper

Effect of Decoration on Windshield Impact Resistance and Novel Decoration Solution Compatible with Chemical Strengthening

2022-03-29
2022-01-0263
Vehicle windshields typically include a black decorative pattern around their periphery and other regions. Examination of field failed parts has shown that windshields often break from impacts in these decoration zones; often with the fracture initiating from the decoration material itself. In this work, the effect of different glazing decoration materials on glass strength and laminate impact resistance was evaluated. The decoration materials investigated included traditional inorganic enamel frit, an organic ink, and a new enamel frit that is compatible with glass chemical strengthening. Ring-on-Ring strength tests were conducted and showed that inorganic enamel frit reduces strength of glass by over 50% compared to undecorated glass, while organic inks do not adversely affect strength. Tests of a newly developed decoration frit material, compatible for chemical strengthening processes, showed strength levels that were on par with undecorated, unstrengthened glass.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Bicycle Wheel Hub Assembly for Automotive Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0262
The diminutive rolling resistance and wheel bearing drag characteristics of a bicycle wheel assembly makes it a lucrative choice of component in numerous 3-wheeled (3W) and 4-wheeled (4W) automotive applications. However, when a bicycle wheel is subjected to the loads encountered in such applications, complications pertaining to strength, durability and, performance are encountered. Since a bicycle wheel is intended to be arrested at either end of its axle, cantilever loading of the component as practiced in automotive applications diminishes the ability of the spindle to withstand longitudinal, and vertical forces encountered. Furthermore, while cornering on a bicycle, the maneuver of leaning in a corner significantly reduces the lateral stiffness requirement of the hub flanges. Therefore generic hub assemblies are designed without accounting for the action of lateral forces that are experienced at the hub with the wheel held vertical.
Technical Paper

Prediction and identification of vehicle rattle noise caused by shock absorbers

2022-03-29
2022-01-0304
A novel technology is proposed to predict vehicle rattle noise caused by shock absorbers. The model of shock absorber is developed by analyzing the force of moving parts, hydronic characteristic of valves and physical characteristic of oil. The model of mount, fixed between shock absorber and vehicle body, is developed with Maxwell method of combining series of spring and damping components. The characteristics of mount are measured under the specified frequency and amplitude conditions, the spring and damping coefficients of Maxwell model are identified using the measured data. The model of spring is developed by curve interpolation of measured data, considering the hysteresis properties of the real spring. The mass, wheel base etc. data of real vehicle are measured and the model of vehicle body is developed by Carsim using the measured data.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on the Internal Flow Field of Electronic Expansion Valve as the Throttle Element

2022-03-29
2022-01-0318
As one of the key components of the heat pump system, the electronic expansion valve mainly plays the role of throttling and reducing pressure in the heat pump system. The refrigerant flowing through the orifice will produce complex phase change. It is of great significance to study the internal flow field by means of CFD calculations. Firstly, a three-dimensional fluid model is established and the mesh is divided. Secondly, the phase change model is selected, the material is defined and the boundary conditions are determined. According to the principle of the fluid passing through thin-walled small holes, the flow characteristics of electronic expansion valve are theoretically analyzed. Then the flow characteristics of expansion valve are numerically calculated, and a bench for testing mass flow rate of the expansion valve is built. Then the theoretical value, CFD value and experimental value are compared to verify the correctness of the established three-dimensional fluid model.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of an Electric Car Chassis and Body using Structural Analysis and CFD

2022-03-29
2022-01-0292
The transition from traditional gasoline-powered automobiles to electric vehicles (EVs) has taken time, two major challenges of engine- powered vehicles are greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy. Electric cars require less maintenance. A lot of money can be saved while also helping the environment. In today's world, working with lightweight materials have emerged as a key area for improvement in the automotive industry. The most efficient method for increasing power output is to reduce the weight of vehicle components. Composite materials have benefited greatly from research and development because they are stronger, more recyclable, and easier to integrate into vehicles. The primary goal of this research is to design the body and chassis frame of a two-seater electric car.
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