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Technical Paper

Decoding Genuine Ceramic Pad Formulations- Materials and Processing

The need to develop genuine ceramic composites for PV applications arose to overcome the challenges associated with traditional semi-metallic pads. The main focus is to achieve better performance, low noise, better pad and rotor wear, and low dust compared to semi- metallic pads. In general, brake pads convert kinetic energy to thermal energy through friction, and operating temperature in semi-metallic brake pads is higher due to the presence of steel having high thermal conductivity. Over the last decade, the customer preference has moved over to ceramic pads due to light coloured pad surface, low rotor and pad wear and low dust compared to semi-metallic pads. The traditional steel has been replaced by Aramid, engineered ceramic fibre, potassium titanate (TISMO D), lapinus fibre (RB 250) to impart similar/better performance. The current work investigates the characterisation of genuine ceramic and semi-metallic composites.
Technical Paper

Effect of Material Anisotropy on Thermal-Mechanical Instabilities in Metal-Free Friction Materials

An anisotropic ceramic matrix composite (CMC), which consists of a silicon carbide (SiC) based ceramic matrix reinforced with carbon (C) fibers, is considered as a metal-free friction material replacement in brake and clutch applications. The fibers are assumed to have a circular cross-section, arranged unidirectionally and packed in a rectangular array without the presence of voids. The rule of mixture showed the C-SiC composite to be transversely isotropic with the circumferential plane as the plane of isotropy. A set of parametric studies have been performed to computationally investigate the dominant parameters that affect thermal-mechanical instabilities. It is found that the chance of thermal buckling in the friction disc can be minimized by reducing the elastic moduli in the radial and circumferential directions, or by reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion in the same directions.

Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Cathode Active Materials

This SAE Recommended Practice provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of lithium ion battery cathode active material. It is beyond the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as these are usually established between the vendor and customer. It should be noted that materials properties can vary substantially between classes of materials (e.g., LNO and LFP) and caution should be exercised when attempting to directly compare their chemical and physical properties. While these distinctions are important for the manufacturer, this document focuses on the techniques to measure the materials properties and not their absolute or relative values. Future materials such as solid-state batteries and sulfides are beyond the scope of this document.

Overlap Shear Test for Automotive Type Sealant for Stationary Glass Bonding

This SAE Recommended Practice defines a procedure for the construction and testing of glass to metal lap shears for determining shear strength of sealant adhesives for automotive stationary glass bonding. This procedure can also be used for fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) when used in place of metal.

Peel Adhesion Test for Glass to Elastomeric Material for Automotive Glass Encapsulation

This recommended practice defines a procedure for the construction and testing of a 180 deg peel specimen for the purpose of determining the bondability of glass to elastomeric material in automotive modular glass. This test method suggests that elastomeric material of less than 172 mpa modulus be used as the encapsulating material. The present practice of encapsulating automotive glass is described as molded-in-place elastomeric material onto the outer edge of the glass using thermoplastic or thermosetting material that quickly sets in the mold. The glass is removed from the mold with the cured elastomeric material bonded to the perimeter of the glass. This encapsulated glass module can now be bonded with a sealant adhesive into the body opening of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Wear Performances of Gray Cast Iron Brake Rotor with Plasma Electrolytic Aluminating Coating against Different Pads

Gray cast iron brake rotor experiences substantial wear during braking and contributes largely to the wear debris emissions. Surface coating on the gray cast iron rotor represents a trending approach dealing with the problems. In this research, a new plasma electrolytic aluminating (PEA) process was used for preparing an alumina-based ceramic coating with metallurgical bonding to the gray cast iron. Three different types of brake pads (ceramic, semi-metallic and non asbestos organic (NAO)) were used for tribotests. Performances of PEA coatings vs. different brake pad materials were comparatively investigated with respect to their coefficients of friction (COFs) and wear. The PEA-coated brake rotor has a dimple-like surface which promotes the formation of a thin transferred film to protect the rotor from wear. The transferred film materials come from the wear debris of the pads. The secondary plateaus are regenerated on the brake pads through compacting wear debris of the pads.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics on Nondestructive Testing of Additively Manufactured Parts in the Mobility Industry

Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, also known as 3D printing, has transitioned from concepts and prototypes to part-for-part substitution and the creation of unique AM-specific part geometries. These applications are increasingly present in demanding, mission-critical fields such as medicine and aerospace, which require materials with certain thermal, stiffness, corrosion, and static loading properties. To advance in these arenas, metallic, ceramic, and polymer composite AM parts need to be free from discontinuities. The manufacturing processes have to be stable, robust, and repeatable. And the nondestructive testing (NDT) technology and inspection methods will need to be sufficiently capable and reliable to ensure that discontinuities will be detected to prevent the components from being accepted for use. As the second installment of a six-part series of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports on AM, this one discusses the need, challenges, technologies, and opportunities for NDT in AM.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Stir cum Squeeze Cast A356 with 5wt. % SiC and x wt. % Flyash Hybrid Composites

The forged connecting rod and pin experience a large amount of stresses due to cyclic load for a long period of time induced by the reciprocating movement of the piston. The proposed work focused to produce lightweight composites with high strength using waste flyash and simple manufacturing process. In this context, the proposed experimental work was formulated to develop aluminium alloy hybrid metal matrix composite of A356 alloy with silicon carbide and flyash processed through stir cum squeeze casting process under optimal parametric condition. The samples were subjected to varying flyash content of 0, 5, 10wt.% and SiC of 5wt.% kept constant. Responses like metallography, hardness, impact strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength were observed for the manufactured hybrid composites. There was a significant improvement in the properties with a higher weight percentage addition of 10wt.% flyash and 5wt.% SiC with A356 hybrid composites.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Influence of Iron Oxide Nanofluids on Characteristics of a Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine Operated with Methyl Esters of Waste Cooking Oil

In this study, an experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of Iron Oxide Nanofluids on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Low Heat Rejection (LHR) diesel engine operated with methyl esters of Waste Cooking Oil (WCOME). In the first phase of the work, single-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine test rig was developed and tested for its baseline readings with diesel at different power outputs. In the second phase of the work, the test engine was operated with WCOME and tested for its characteristics.
Journal Article

Study of Parametric Influence on Dry Sliding Wear and Corrosion Behavior of AA5754-TiB2 In Situ Composites

Abstract Tribological properties determine the elemental factors influencing the performance of the components that are subjected to relative motion. Of late, low-density Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have been renowned as materials for the components that are subjected to tribological applications. This work reports an experimental study of wear and corrosion behavior of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (AMMCs) reinforced with in situ TiB2 particles. These composites were synthesized by a mixed salt route procedure using K2TiF6 and KBF4 at a temperature of 850°C by using the stir casting method. Dry sliding wear behavior of AA5754-TiB2 in situ composites were compared with base material for the various loads, sliding speed, and sliding distances. These parameters were analyzed using Taguchi techniques. It was found that the percentage of reinforcement and load are the most significant parameters.
Journal Article

Investigation on the Effect of Al2O3 and B4C Ceramic Particles on Mechanical Properties of AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites

Abstract The present research work aims to investigate the mechanical properties of AA 7075 hybrid composite reinforced with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and boron carbide (B4C). In this research, fabrication of composites is completed in two stages: In the first stage, the Al2O3 composites were fabricated and mechanical properties were tested. The reinforcement weight percentage (wt%) of Al2O3 having the maximum value of tensile strength, hardness, and flexural strength and impact energy is selected and reinforced with a different weight percentage of B4C to investigate the effect. The internal structure of the composite is observed using a scanning electron microscope to analyze the fracture mechanism. The tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites increased with an increase in the weight percentage of reinforcement.
Journal Article

Effect of Shot Peening Conditions on the Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured A357.0 Parts

Abstract Fatigue performance can be a critical attribute for the production of structural parts or components via additive manufacturing (AM). In comparison to the static tensile behavior of AM components, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the fatigue performance. The growing market demand for AM implies the need for more accurate fatigue investigations to account for dynamically loaded applications. A357.0 parts are processed by laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in order to evaluate the effect of surface finishing on fatigue behavior. The specimens are surface finished by shot peening using ϕ = 0.2 and ϕ = 0.4 mm steel particles and ϕ = 0.21-0.3 mm zirconia-based ceramic particles.
Technical Paper

Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion.

Electroplating and Related Finishes

Electroplating is a process whereby an object is coated with one or more relatively thin, tightly adherent layer of one or more metals. It is accomplished by placing the object to be coated on a plating rack or a fixture, or in a basket or in a rotating container in such a manner that a suitable current may flow through it, and then immersing it in a series of solutions and rinses in planned sequence. The advantage to be gained by electroplating may be considerable; broadly speaking, the process is used when it is desired to endow the basis material (selected for cost, material conservation, and physical property reasons) with surface properties it does not possess. It should be noted that although electroplating is the most widely used process for applying metals to a substrate, they may also be applied by spraying, vacuum deposition, cladding, hot dipping, chemical reduction, mechanical plating, etc.

Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Separator

This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1 Separator material parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured. 2 Chemistry/customer-specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3 R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. The methodologies in this third section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective is to fabricate an Aluminium- Flyash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Bound Materials: A Suitable Solution for Light Brakes

A ceramic bound matrix has been investigated to be used as a friction material. The materials were produced by means of ceramic technology using frits containing silicates, and ceramic friction modifiers such as tin oxide, zircon, iron oxide, magnesium oxide. Four formulations were tested by means of a tribometer (pin-on-disc tester) using a gray cast iron counterpart. Test section included speeds between 1 and 12 ms-1, and loads between 25 and 400 N. The coefficient of friction of the tested specimens were between 0.7 and 0.4, and exhibited sensitivity to speed at low loads (25 N), while they are quite stables at high loads (400N). The characterization of the tribolayers was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy. The four developed materials were named A, B, C, and D. They exhibited different wear rates and coefficients of friction. All the materials exhibited sensitivity to speed, while showed a lower sensitivity to load.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Novel Thermal Barrier Coatings in a Single Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine

The objective of this investigation was to improve the thermal properties of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) for internal combustion engines. There is a need for further reduction of thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity and the negative effects on heat loss and combustion phasing of surface roughness and permeable porosity, typical for plasma sprayed coatings, should be minimized. Four measures for improvement of TBC properties were evaluated: i) modification of the coating's microstructure by using a novel suspension plasma spraying method, ii) application of gadolinium-zirconate, a novel ceramic material with low thermal conductivity, iii) polishing of the coating to achieve low surface roughness, and iv) sealing of the porous coating surface with a polysilazane. Six coating variants with different combinations of the selected measures were applied on the piston crown and evaluated in a single cylinder light duty diesel engine.
Training / Education

Introduction to Materials Bundle

The following six on-demand courses are included in the Introduction to Materials bundle.  Each course is approximately one-hour in duration. See Topics/Outline for additional details. Introduction to Physical Properties  This course provides an an overview of manufacturing materials and their physical properties, including thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties and introduces volumetric characteristics, such as mass, weight, and density.