Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Role of Graphite Particles Size in Brake-Pads in Controlling Tribological and Noise Performance.

2019-09-15
2019-01-2106
Graphite plays a crucial role in friction materials, since it has good thermal conductivity, lubricity and act as a friction modifier. The right type, amount, shape and size of the particles control the performance of the brake-pads. In this study, particles of synthetic graphite produced in a unique highly controlled graphitization process were selected to develop NAO- Cu-free brake-pads. The four types of pads had identical composition except variation in average particle size of the graphite (60 µm, 120 µm, 200 µm and 400 µm). Physical, mechanical and chemical characterization of the developed brake-pads was done. Tribological performance was studied using a full- scale inertia brake dynamometer following a Japanese automobile testing standard (JASO C406) and noise studies were done on reduced scale prototype following SAE J2521 standard.
Technical Paper

Chemical and Physical Characterization of Organic Particulate Matter from Last Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment System of Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0053
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Characterization of Catalytic Converter Substrates During Warm-Up

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Standard

Glossary of Carbon Steel Sheet and Strip Terms

2019-05-19
WIP
J940
This glossary is intended to provide engineers, metallurgists, and production personnel with uniform definitions of commonly used carbon sheet and strip terms. The glossary serves to supplement information and photographs reported in SAE J810, J763, J877, J863, and J403. Many of the terms listed apply only to hot-dipped zinc-coated products or to uncoated products. The letter C following the term identifies a term applying to coated materials, while the letters NC identify a term applying to uncoated materials. Where no identification is provided, the term is common to both.
Technical Paper

Research on Exploring Effect of Stain Resisting Chemical Treatment on Automotive Fabric Parameters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0463
Fabrics play a vital role in defining the overall aesthetics of automotive interiors, primarily with fabric cleanliness. In this respect, the cleanliness of the fabric also becomes equally important. The fabric interior in a car is very prone to staining due to the spilling of water or any liquid substance over it. In order to protect and enhance the life of the fabric, various chemical treatments are suggested as fabric finishes. There are different chemical bases available for the same. Fluorocarbon base is the most effective treatment and is the focus of this study. This chemical treatment lowers the surface energy of the fabric by increasing the hydrophobicity of fabric. Hence, the liquid roll over the surface in the form of droplets by creating higher contact angle over the fiber surface. This study focuses on the effect of chemical treatment on the automotive fabric’s parameters, especially light color fabric.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study on Laminar Flame Propagation in Mixtures with Non-Zero Reaction Progress

2019-04-02
2019-01-0946
Flame speed data reported in most literature are acquired in conventional apparatus such as the spherical combustion bomb and counterflow burner, and are limited to atmospheric pressure and ambient or slightly elevated unburnt temperatures. As such, these data bear little relevance to internal combustion engines and gas turbines, which operate under typical pressures of 10-50 bar and unburnt temperature up to 900K or higher. These elevated temperatures and pressures not only modify dominant flame chemistry, but more importantly, they inevitably facilitate pre-ignition reactions and hence can change the upstream thermodynamic and chemical conditions of a regular hot flame leading to modified flame properties. This study focuses on how auto-ignition chemistry affects flame propagation, especially in the negative-temperature coefficient (NTC) regime, where dimethyl ether (DME), n-heptane and iso-octane are chosen for study as typical fuels exhibiting low temperature chemistry (LTC).
Technical Paper

Direct Coating Technology for Metallic Paint Replacement

2019-04-02
2019-01-0186
Direct Coating is a new processing technique which applies a single-layer polyurethane coating directly to a plastic part within a 2-shot molding cycle. The advantages of Direct Coating over traditional paint are improved surface quality, scratch resistance, and cost-effective processing. This concept has been previously showcased in high-gloss piano black with the simple geometry of the exterior door garnish. In this paper, the capabilities of Direct Coating are expanded to include metallic pigments and complex geometries for interior trim. For this development project, the Hyundai Sonata center fascia was selected as the target application due to the complex flow geometry around the bezel, and the high occurrence of customer contact, necessitating scratch and chemical resistance. Results of plaque-level testing showed that the coating material passed all requirements, including interior chemical resistance and scratch resistance.
Technical Paper

A Study on Kinetic Mechanisms of Diesel Fuel Surrogate n-Dodecane for the Simulation of Combustion Recession

2019-04-02
2019-01-0202
Combustion recession, an end of injection (EOI) diesel spray phenomenon, has been found to be a robust correlation parameter for UHC in diesel LTC strategies. Previous studies have shown that the likelihood of capturing combustion recession in numerical simulations is highly dependent on the details of the low-temperature chemistry reaction mechanisms employed. This study aims to further the understanding of the effects of different chemical mechanisms in the prediction of a reactive diesel spray and its EOI process: combustion recession. Studies were performed under the Engine Combustion Network’s (ECN) “Spray A” conditions using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS) and the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion model with four different chemical mechanisms for n-dodecane that are commonly used in the engine simulation communities - including recently developed reduced chemistry mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Velocities of High-Performance Fuels Relevant to the Co-Optima Initiative

2019-04-02
2019-01-0571
Laminar burning velocity (LBV) measurements are reported for promising high-performance fuels selected as drop-in transportation fuels to automotive grade gasoline as part of the United States Department of Energy’s Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Initiative (Co-Optima). LBV measurements were conducted for ethanol, methyl acetate, and 2-methylfuran with synthetic air (79.0 % N2 and 21.0 % O2 by volume) within a constant-volume spherical combustion rig. Mixture initial temperature was fixed at 428±4 K, with the corresponding initial pressure of 1.00±0.02 atm. Current LBV of ethanol is in good agreement with literature data. LBV of ethanol and 2-methylfuran showed similar values over the range of equivalence ratios, while methyl acetate exhibited an LBV significantly lower over the range of tested equivalence ratios. The maximum laminar burning velocity occurred at slightly richer equivalence ratio from the stoichiometric value for all fuels tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Preparation, Support Structures and Build Orientation on the Cyclic Stress-Strain Behavior of Inconel®718 Produced by SLM

2019-04-02
2019-01-0918
The flexibility in design offered by advanced additive manufacturing technologies makes these processes more and more attractive for automotive and aircraft applications and, also, for the production of safety relevant metal components. The high strength, thermally resistant nickel-based alloy Inconel®718 is widely used by the aircraft industry and its low level of machinability makes it an optimal candidate for AM technologies. The challenge, together with improving the process, is now to build the path that will bring AM technologies from rapid prototyping to series production. Therefore, it is essential to investigate additively manufactured materials and the effect that subsequent processing, such as, for example surface preparation, has on their properties. Furthermore, while the static properties of additively manufactured Inconel®718 have already been investigated, this work aims to describe its cyclic stress-strain behavior, which can be used for fatigue assessment.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Field-Aged Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0998
Three-way catalysts have been used in a variety of stoichiometric natural gas engines for emission control. During real-world operation, these catalysts have experienced a large number of temporary and permanent deactivations including thermal aging and chemical contamination. Thermal aging is typically induced either by high engine-out exhaust temperatures or the reaction exotherm generated on the catalysts. Chemical contamination originates from various inorganic species such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) that contain in engine fluids, which can poison and/or mask the catalyst active components. Such deactivations are quite difficult to simulate under laboratory conditions, due to the fact that multiple deactivation modes may occur at the same time in the real-world operations. In this work, a set of field-aged TWCs has been analyzed through detailed laboratory research in order to identify and quantify the real-world aging mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

Improved Test Method for Tribological Evaluation of High Performance Plastics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0183
Engineering plastics are widely used in many tribological applications due to their inherent advantages such as reduced weight, ease of manufacturing, improved chemical compatibility, and damping characteristics. However, the process of selecting an appropriate polymeric material system for a specific application involves significant experimentation.
Journal Article

A Model Study for Prediction of Performance of Automotive Interior Coatings: Effect of Cross-Link Density and Film Thickness on Resistance to Solvents and Chemicals

2019-03-27
Abstract Automotive interior coatings for flexible and rigid substrates represent an important segment within automotive coating space. These coatings are used to protect plastic substrates from mechanical and chemical damage, in addition to providing colour and design aesthetics. These coatings are expected to resist aggressive chemicals, fluids, and stains while maintaining their long-term physical appearance and mechanical integrity. Designing such coatings, therefore, poses significant challenges to the formulators in effectively balancing these properties. Among many factors affecting coating properties, the cross-link density (XLD) and solubility parameter (δ) of coatings are the most predominant factors.
Technical Paper

Automated Surface Preparation of Embraer’s Commercial Jet Fuselage for Painting Process

2019-03-19
2019-01-1339
The surface preparation of the fuselage prior to painting is largely done manually in the Aerospace Industry; utilizing scrubbers, sanders, chemicals, and manlifts resulting in safety and ergonomic issues without delivering a consistent result. The automation of the process employing robots, vision systems, machine movers, and automated process equipment provided the following benefits: Improved Safety and Ergonomics Reduced exposure to hazardous materials and working conditions Improved Consistency and Quality Improved Production Capabilities and Reduced Labor Costs Reduced Material Usage Less weight Lower environmental risks Lower cost This paper will describe the equipment used and the process changes required to automate the surface preparation process, then discuss the benefits that were realized.
X