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Technical Paper

Demonstrating UVC LED Inside Automobile HVAC Chambers for Clean Cabin Air and Airborne Transmission Risk Reduction

2022-03-29
2022-01-0197
The COVID-19 pandemic affected mobility in many ways- from changing business models of moving passenger to delivering packages and food, developing cleaning protocols for interiors and increasing the awareness of consumers to the hidden dangers of pathogens and viruses in an enclosed space. A trend towards healthy cars is believed to remain after the current pandemic and has led to the emergence of new safety features, from CO2 gas sensors, to antimicrobial fabrics, and enhanced air purifiers. While air purifiers trap contaminants using cartridge filters, they are not particularly efficient at removing viral particles and create large pressure drops, which must be compensated with larger fans, increasing noise and power consumption, both of which are not optimal for vehicle HVAC systems. However, air purifiers act as a pressure head, which limits their utility. UVC was not previously an option because mercury lamps pose their own electrical and chemical hazards.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of Tribological Performance of Different Llow Viscosity Engine Oils in a 4-Stroke CI Light-Duty ICE

2022-03-29
2022-01-0321
Decreasing fuel consumption in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is a key target for engine developers in order to achieve the CO2 emissions limits during a standard cycle. In this context, reduction of engine friction can help meet those targets. The use of Low Viscosity Engine Oils (LVEOs), which is currently one of the avenues to achieve such reductions, is studied in this manuscript through a validated numerical simulation model that predicts the friction of the engine’s piston-cylinder unit, journal bearings and camshaft. These frictional power losses are obtained for four different lubricant formulations which differ in their viscosity grades and design. Results show a maximum friction savings of up to 6% depending on the engine operating condition, where the major reductions come from hydrodynamic-dominated components such as journal bearings, despite an increase in friction in boundary-dominated components such as the piston-ring assembly.
Technical Paper

A quick method to evaluate fuel chemistry on vehicle particulate emissions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0489
Fuel chemistry plays a crucial role in the continued reduction of particulate emission (PE) and cleaner air quality while using internal combustion engines (ICE). Over the past ten years, there has been great improvements in the measurements of particulate formation indices. Examples of these indices would be the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) equation and the General Motors Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI), among others. Even though there have been improvements in particulate index (PI) measurement tools, the method analysis within these tools are still very time-consuming. These methods can include the use of chromatography separation techniques such as detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA), which have become very popular in the petrochemical industry. A review of historical PI methods will be discussed, along with a PE comparison to a less time-consuming simulated distillation method analysis.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based In-Exhaust Gas Sensor for On-Road Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0535
Indrio Technologies has developed a novel on-board sensor, named Ignis, for detecting oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) in diesel exhaust streams with sensitivities and molecular specificity unmet by existing technologies. This is a key technological need for diesel engine manufacturers, who face difficulty in precisely controlling their exhaust aftertreatment systems due to the lack of widely deployable sensors capable of differentiating between NOx, NH3 and other species in the exhaust stream. The successful incorporation of the proposed sensor can result in greater fuel efficiency improvements while matching new stringent 2027 California and 2030 EPA NOx emissions standards. Once the product has reached deep market penetration, the fleet-wide fuel economy improvements and NOx emissions reductions enabled by this product will lead to reduced carbon emissions and healthier air with lower amounts of NOx-induced smog, ground-level ozone, and acid rain.
Technical Paper

A Review of Current Understanding of the Underlying Physics Governing the Interaction, Ignition and Combustion Dynamics of Multiple-injections in Diesel Engines

2022-03-29
2022-01-0445
This work is intended to be a comprehensive technical review of existing literature and a synthesis of current understanding of the governing physics behind the interaction of multiple fuel injectio ns, ignition and combustion behavior of multiple-injections in diesel engines. Multiple-injection is a widely adopted operating strategy applied in modern compression-ignition engines, which involves various combinations of small pre-injections and post-injections of fuel before and after the main injection and splitting the main injection into multiple smaller injections. This strategy has been conclusively shown to improve fuel economy in diesel engines while achieving simultaneous NOx, soot, and combustion noise reduction in addition to a reduction in the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and CO by preventing fuel wetting and flame quenching at the piston wall.
Technical Paper

Development and validation of an EHN mechanism for fundamental and applied chemistry studies

2022-03-29
2022-01-0455
Autoignition enhancing additives have been used for years to enhance the ignition quality of diesel fuel, with 2-ethylexyl nitrate (EHN) being the most common additive. EHN also enhances the autoignition reactivity of gasoline, which has advantages for some low-temperature combustion techniques, such as Sandia’s Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) with Additive-Mixing Fuel Injection (AMFI). LTGC-AMFI is a new high-efficiency and low-emissions engine combustion process based on supplying a small, variable amount of EHN into the fuel for better engine operation and control. However, the mechanism by which EHN interacts with the fuel remains unclear. In this work, a chemical-kinetic mechanism for EHN was developed and implemented in a detailed mechanism for gasoline fuels. The combined mechanism was validated against shock-tube experiments with EHN-doped n-heptane and HCCI engine data for EHN-doped regular E10 gasoline. Simulations showed a very good match with experiments.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Methane-Hydrogen Mixtures for Enabling Stable Lean Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines for Automotive Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0471
Economy decarbonization will be one of the main goals for the following years. Research efforts are being focused on reducing carbon-based emissions, by increasing the efficiency of the transport power plants while developing new fuel production methods that reduce the environmental footprint of the refinement process. Consequently, the depletion of conventional fuels derived from petroleum with high carbon content, such as gasoline and diesel, motivated the development of propulsive alternatives for the automotive sector. In this paradigm, methane (CH4) fuel appears as a mid-term solution due to its low carbon content, if compared with traditional fuels, and the low CO2 emissions during its production from renewable sources. However, the intrinsic properties of methane compromise the combustion process, subsequently increasing the emission of CO2.
Technical Paper

Modeling of regeneration dynamics in gasoline particulate filters and sensitivity analysis of numerical solutions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0556
Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) engine technology improves vehicle fuel economy toward future targets and simultaneously decreases CO2 emissions. The main drawback of this technology is the increased emission of particulates (when compared to their indirect injection-based technology counterpart). Thus, aftertreatment devices such as Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are today considered the most promising and practically adoptable solution to limit PM/PN out of GDI exhaust. The particulate filter traps soot particles resulting from fuel combustion and prevents their release into the atmosphere. Soot oxidation (also known as regeneration) is required at regular intervals to clean the filter, maintain a consistent soot trapping efficiency, and avoid the formation of soot plugs in the GPF channel.
Technical Paper

Investigation of naphta-type biofuel from a novel refinery process

2022-03-29
2022-01-0752
In order to reduce the carbon footprint of the internal combustion engine (ICE), biofuels have been in use for a number of years. One of the problems with first-generation (1G) biofuels however is their competition with food agriculture. In search of second-generation (2G) biofuels, that are not in competition with food-grade agriculture, a novel biorefinery process has been developed to produce biofuel from woody biomass sources. This novel technique, part of the European funded Ad-Libio project, uses a two-phase (H2O:organic) liquid-phase chemical approach, that operates at low temperature, and is able to convert 2G feedstock into a stable light naphtha. The bulk of the yield consists out of hydrocarbons containing five to six carbon atoms, along with a fraction of oxygenates and aromatics. The oxygen content and the aromaticity of the hydrocarbons can be varied, both of which have a significant influence on the fuel’s combustion and emission characteristics when used in ICEs.
Technical Paper

Title: Numerical optimization of the piston bowl geometry and investigation of the key geometric parameters for the dual-mode dual-fuel (DMDF) concept under a wide load range

2022-03-29
2022-01-0782
Focusing on the dual-mode dual-fuel (DMDF) combustion concept, a combined optimization of the piston bowl geometry with the fuel injection strategy was conducted at low, mid, and high loads. By coupling the KIVA-3V code with the enhanced genetic algorithm (GA), a total of 14 parameters including the piston bowl geometric parameters and the injection parameters were optimized with the objective of meeting Euro VI regulations while improving the fuel efficiency. The optimal piston bowl shape coupled with the corresponding injection strategy was summarized and integrated at various loads. Furthermore, the effects of the key geometric parameters were investigated in terms of organizing the in-cylinder flow, influencing the energy distribution, and affecting the emissions. The results indicate that the behavior of the DMDF combustion mode is further enhanced in the aspects of improving the fuel economy and controlling the emissions after the bowl geometry optimization.
Technical Paper

Identifying Factors that Affect Brake Wear PM Emissions During Real-world Test Conditions

2022-03-29
2022-01-0570
Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the world’s most problematic pollutants in terms of harm to environment and human health. It has been found out that PM emission levels are very high during traffic congestion and thus, PM is considered as the primary pollutants in urban areas. Many literatures suggested that PM emitted during braking sequence from both internal combustion engines and electrified vehicles are considered high and could be the major cause of this issue. Many studies regarding to PM from brake wear were done in the pin disc laboratory setup which might not represent real-world driving scenarios. Various studies of on road non-exhaust PM measurement were mostly focused on driving cycles. Parametric studies to identifying factors that affect brake wear during real-world driving scenarios are still needed for more investigations. The current study focuses on identifying factors that affect brake wear particle emissions from an on-road vehicle in real-time measurements.
Technical Paper

Calculation Methods Impact on Real Driving Emissions Particulate Number Emission Evaluation: Moving Average Window in China vs. Raw Mileage Averaged in Europe

2022-03-29
2022-01-0567
In the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) tests, Particulate Number (PN) emission is specifically restricted with a limit as product of the Conformity Factor (CF) and WLTC PN limit 6.0E11 #/km. The CF value is defined as 1.5 in the Europe 6d and 2.1 in the China 6b. Besides the tighter CF value in Europe, the calculation methods that are employed to evaluate the RDE PN emission are also different, i.e. Moving Averaged Window (MAW) according to the China 6b and Raw Mileage Averaged (RMA) according to the Europe 6d RDE package 4. In our previous studies, the “MAW” method was found to be less stringent than the “RMA” method generally, because the window-based “MAW” method could under-estimate the high PN emission generated in the cold start [1]. In fact, for the “MAW” method, the cold start emissions are less counted compared to emissions from the middle of the RDE test. Meanwhile, the weight of each window is impacted by CO2 emission.
Technical Paper

Comparison and analysis of real-driving emissions with different processing methods and driving behaviors from a light-duty gasoline vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0573
Real driving emission (RDE) tests are influenced by factors such as data processing methods, driving behaviors, and environmental conditions. Therefore, being able to effectively identify test influence factors is particularly important for RDE emissions-based calibrations. In order to investigate the correlation between data processing methods, driving behaviors and vehicle emissions, the moving average window (MAW) method and cumulative averaging (CA) method were used to compare and analyze the RDE test data of a light-duty gasoline vehicle under different driving modes in this study. The results showed that in MAW method, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of urban and total trips calculated by using the front to back window division order were slightly lower compared to the back to front window division order, with an average reduction of 4.68% and 6.33%, respectively. For carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the order of window division had the opposite effect as for CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Real World Emissions Analysis Using Sensor-based Emissions Measurement System for Light-duty Direct-Injection Gasoline Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0572
In recent years, particulate matter (PM) emitted from direct-injection gasoline vehicles has become a problem. In addition, it is often reported that ammonia (NH3) is emitted from gasoline vehicles equipped with a three-way catalyst. These emissions might be largely emitted especially when driving in on-road driving conditions. In this study, we investigated the emissions, NOx, NH3, and PM / PN (particulate number) of a light-duty direct-injection gasoline vehicle when driving on actual roads. Using a small direct-injection gasoline vehicle equipped with a three-way catalyst, we ran nine times on the same route and measured these emissions. Based on these measurements, we analyzed "where" and "how much" NOx, NH3, and PM / PN were emitted. As a result, it was clarified that a large amount of NOx is emitted after the fuel is cut during deceleration, NH3 is emitted when the air-fuel ratio becomes rich, and PM / PN is emitted during rapid acceleration of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

OSC modelling of 3-way automotive catalysts to understand the effect of latent OSC on dynamic OSC performance

2022-03-29
2022-01-0574
A Three-way automotive catalyst's ability to store oxygen is still a crucial performance metric for modern day catalyst applications. With more stringent emissions legalisation, the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) within the catalyst can assist with converting different exhaust gases such as CO, THC and NOx under transient operating conditions. OSC is currently the only onboard catalyst performance metric recorded during a vehicle's useful life. Catalyst performance is correlated to this OSC measurement. OSC in 3-way automotive catalysts can be split into two main OSC types. "Latent OSC" deep within the layers of the washcoat and "dynamic" OSC on the surface layers of the catalyst washcoat. Dynamic OSC is more commonly applied in the evaluation of the activity of the catalyst during practical operation. This paper uses a kinetic OSC model with a layered washcoat approach to analyse OSC test data and show how latent OSC can affect the dynamic OSC performance of a 3-way catalyst.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Fouling Reduction: A New Method for Assessment in Early Engine Development Phase

2022-03-29
2022-01-0589
High pressure EGR provides NOx emission reduction even at low exhaust temperatures. To maintain a safe EGR system operation over a required lifetime, the EGR cooler fouling must not exceed an allowable level, even if the engine is operated under worst case conditions. A reliable fouling simulation model represents a valuable tool in the engine development process, which validates operating and calibration strategies regarding fouling tendency, helping to avoid fouling issues in a late development phase close to series production. Long-chained hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas essentially impact the fouling layer formation. Therefore a simulation model requires reliable input data especially regarding mass flow of long-chained hydrocarbons transported into the cooler. There is a huge number of different hydrocarbon species in the exhaust gas, but their individual concentration typically is very low, close to the detection limit of standard in-situ measurement equipment like GC-MS.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the impact of vehicle emissions on air quality changes during COVID-19 lockdown in Bogota, Colombia.

2022-03-29
2022-01-0583
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments to implement rigorous containment measures on reduction or cessation of human mobility, transportation and economic activities, to control the spread of the virus. This is considered as a unique opportunity to study the impact of local lockdowns periods, especially, on the vehicle emission levels, and urban air quality in cities with high pollution levels, such as Bogota, Colombia. The first case was confirmed in Colombia on March 6, 2020, since then to prevent its propagation, the government declared a national lockdown starting from March 20 until August 31, 2020. Therefore, this study attempted to analyse the air quality in Bogota by assessing the concentrations of the atmospheric pollutants NO₂, SO₂, O₃, CO, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ during the lockdown period and the corresponding concentrations levels during the same period in 2018 and 2019.
Technical Paper

Numerical analysis of the injection direction of Urea-Water sprays for the ammonia generation in realistic operating conditions.

2022-03-29
2022-01-0584
During the past decades, increasingly tighter NOx emission limitations for diesel engines has implied greater development of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for emission reduction purposes. The Urea-Water Solution (UWS) injection process plays a major role in the SCR efficiency both in the near-field, as well as in the far field. In order to understand the droplet breakup and mixing of the UWS with the surrounding air under different operating conditions, a computational campaign has been set up to do so. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allow to have a proper understanding of the physical phenomena taking place within the injection chamber, without the need of building up an experimental facility. The main objective of the present study is to recreate the spray injection process, as well as the chemical processes that the UWS spray undergoes, and analyze the optimal injection direction to maximize the amount of ammonia generated during the injection process.
Technical Paper

PHEV Energy Management Optimization Based on Multi-Island Genetic Algorithm

2022-03-29
2022-01-0739
The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) gradually moves into the mainstream market with its excellent power and energy consumption control, and has become the research target of many researchers. The energy management strategy of plug-in hybrid vehicles is more complicated than traditional fuel vehicles. Therefore, there are still many problems to be solved in terms of power source distribution and energy saving and emission reduction. This research puts forward a new solution idea and realized it through simulation optimization, which solves the energy consumption and emission problems of PHEV to a certain extent. First, on the basis that MATLAB software has completed the modeling of the key components of the vehicle, the fuzzy controller of the vehicle is established considering the principle of the joint control of the engine and the electric motor.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis on Fuel Consumption Between Two Online Strategies for P2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Adaptive-RuleBased (A-RB) vs Adaptive-Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (A-ECMS)

2022-03-29
2022-01-0740
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent one of the main technological options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions, helping vehicle (car) manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the stricter targets which are set by the European Green Deal for new passenger cars at 80 g CO2/km by 2025. The optimal power-split between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the electric motor is a new challenge since it depends on many unpredictable variables. In fact, HEV improvements in fuel economy and emissions strongly depend on the energy management strategy (EMS) on-board of the vehicle. Dynamic Programming approach (DP), direct methods and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) are some of the most used methodologies to optimize the HEV power-split. In this paper two online strategies are proposed: an Adaptive-RuleBased (A-RB) and an Adaptive-Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (A-ECMS). At first, a description of the P2 HEV model is made.
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