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Technical Paper

Light Duty engine performance characteristics with Dimethyl Ether and Propane

2024-04-09
2024-01-2126
Paper documents the performance characteristics of a compression ignition HYUNDAI 2.2L engine operating with Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Propane mixtures. The engine features a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system designed to operate with DME and Propane. The main component of the fuel system is a high-pressure pump that incorporates an electronic inlet metering valve commanded on a crank angled base to control the rail pressure. The pump, which requires no pressure regulator, provides the flow needed to the injectors without flow returning to the inlet. Tests are carried out at injection pressures from 300bar to 1000bar, and the engine ECU is aided with the use of an Engine Controller High speed Oversight unit (ECHO) to provide combustion phasing control and improved cylinder-to-cylinder uniformity, providing improved optimization over the testing effort.
Technical Paper

Decarbonizing Light Vehicles with Hydrous Ethanol: Performance Analysis of a Range-Extended PHEV Using Experimental and Simulation Techniques

2024-04-09
2024-01-2161
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have the potential of combining the benefits of electric vehicle in terms of low emissions and internal combustion engine vehicles in terms of vehicle range. With the addition of a renewable fuel, the CO2 potential reduction increase even more. The last trends for PHEV are small combustion engine known as range extender, with battery package between full hybrid and electric powertrains. Thus, allowing an improvement in vehicle’s range, reducing battery materials while converting fuel energy through a highly efficient path. Although these vehicles have been proved to be a convenient strategy for decarbonizing the light vehicles, the use of alternative fuels is poorly studied. In this work, hydrous ethanol is chosen because is already available in some countries, such as USA and Brazil, and have an ultra-low well-to-tank CO2 emission.
Technical Paper

Post-Oxidation Phenomena as a Thermal Management Strategy for Automotive After-Treatment Systems: Assessment by means of 3D-CFD Virtual Development

2024-04-09
2024-01-2629
The target of the newly and future automotive emission regulations is to promote a fast transition to near-zero emission vehicles. As such, the range of ambient and operating conditions tested in the homologation cycles is broadening. In this context, the proposed work aims to thoroughly investigate the potential of post-oxidation phenomena in reducing the light-off time of a conventional three-way catalyst. The study is carried out on a turbocharged four-cylinder gasoline engine by means of experimental and numerical activities. Post oxidation is achieved through the oxidation of unburned fuel in the exhaust line, exploiting a rich combustion and a secondary air injection dedicated strategy. The CFD methodology consists of two different approaches: the former relying on a full-engine mesh, the latter on a detailed analysis of the chemical reactions occurring in the exhaust line.
Technical Paper

Investigation of combustion characteristics of a fuel blend consisting of methanol and ignition improver, compared to diesel fuel and pure methanol

2024-04-09
2024-01-2122
The increasing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and shift away from fossil fuels has raised an interest for methanol. Methanol can be produced from renewable sources and can drastically lower soot emissions from compression ignition engines (CI). As a result, research and development efforts have intensified focusing on the use of methanol as a replacement for diesel in CI engines. The issue with methanol lies in the fact that methanol is challenging to ignite through compression alone, particularly at low-load and cold starts conditions. This challenge arises from methanol's high octane number, low heating value, and high heat of vaporization, all of which collectively demand a substantial amount of heat for methanol to ignite through compression.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation of pilot injection strategies to aid low load compression ignition of neat methanol

2024-04-09
2024-01-2119
The growing demand to lower greenhouse gas emissions and transition from fossil fuels, has put methanol in the spotlight. Methanol can be produced from renewable sources and has the property of burning almost soot-free in compression ignition (CI) engines. Consequently, there has been a notable increase in research and development activities directed towards exploring methanol as a viable substitute for diesel fuel in CI engines. The challenge with methanol lies in the fact that it is difficult to ignite through compression alone, particularly in low-load and cold start conditions. This difficulty arises from methanol's high octane number, relatively low heating value, and high heat of vaporization, collectively demanding a considerable amount of heat for methanol to ignite through compression. Previous studies have addressed the use of a pilot injection in conjunction with a larger main injection to lower the required intake air temperature for methanol to combust at low loads.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of an EGR Dilution in a Pre-Chamber Spark Ignited Engine fuelled by Natural Gas

2024-04-09
2024-01-2081
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a proven strategy for the reduction of NOx emissions in spark ignited (SI) engine and compression ignition engines especially in lean burn conditions where increase thermal efficiency is obtained. The dilution level of the mixture with EGR is in a conventional SI engine limited by the increase of combustion instability (CoV IMEP). A possible method to extend the EGR dilution level and ensure stable combustion is the implementation of an active pre-chamber combustion system. The pre-chamber spark ignited (PCSI) engine enables fast and stable combustion of lean mixtures in the main chamber by utilizing high ignition energy of multiple flame jets penetrating from the pre-chamber to the main chamber. The main feature of an active pre-chamber is the ability to control mixture dilution at the spark plug by adding an injector to the pre-chamber.
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