Abstract Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a promising alternative fuel for application in diesel engines operating on dual-fuel mode. However, its application for a commercial heavy-duty engine has been limited due to difficulty in modification and in altering the engine control unit (ECU) settings. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the CNG flow rate for different speed and load conditions for operating a commercial heavy-duty turbocharged intercooled engine under diesel-CNG dual fuel based on engine performance and emission parameters on an eddy current engine dynamometer. CNG was inducted through the intake manifold at varying mass flow rates of 0.65-4.0 kg/hr for different speed and load conditions while operating the engine at the Speed/Torque (NT) mode of the dynamometer-engine control.
This SAE Recommended Practice was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving or resource conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty (3856 kg [8500 pounds] GVW or less) trucks.
This SAE recommended practice defines the system and component functions, measurement metrics, testing methodologies for evaluating the functionality and performance of tire pressure systems, and recommended maintenance practices within the known operating environments. This document is applicable to all axle and all wheel combinations for single unit powered vehicles exceeding 7257 kg (16 000 US lb) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), and multi-unit vehicle combinations, up to three (3) towed units, which use an SAE J560 connector for power and/or communication, or equivalent successor connector technology, or which use a suitable capacity wireless solution. Examples of included single chassis vehicles would be – utility and delivery vans, tow trucks, rack trucks, buses, recreational vehicles, fuel trucks, trash trucks, dump trucks, cement trucks, and tractors.
Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems used in passenger cars and light duty trucks are covered by these SAE Standards when servicing the refrigerant system. Technician training is required to ensure that recommended procedures are used for service and repair of MAC systems using R-12, R-134a, R-1234yf, R-744, and R-152a refrigerants. Unique requirements for each refrigerant are detailed within this standard. Technicians may be trained in any or all refrigerants. The technician shall be trained to recognize which refrigerant is being handled and how to handle it safely, and be equipped with the essential information, proper equipment, and tools which are unique to these refrigerants. This standard outlines minimum content requirements for such training programs. Training programs designed in accordance with this standard are not intended to ensure or assess the technical skills of technicians regarding the diagnosis and repair of motor vehicle air conditioners.
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a uniform procedure and performance requirements for evaluating fastening systems for normal highway use on aftermarket passenger cars and light trucks (except dual wheels, which are covered by SAE J1965) and multipurpose passenger vehicles. The fastening system includes the wheel, wheel bolts, and wheel nuts, as well as vehicle mating surface. The coefficients of friction for steel and aluminum mating surfaces are provided based on information available. Many factors must be considered in design and validation of wheel attachments for each specific vehicle. Where the procedure is used for original equipment applications the vehicle manufacturers specifications supersede those noted.
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to serve as a guide for standardization of features, dimensions, and configurations of balance weights for aluminum and steel wheels intended for use on passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles to assure good installation and retention of the balance weight. This document also provides test procedures and minimum performance requirements for testing balance weight retention.
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