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Technical Paper

Customized ROPS Application for Configurable Design at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0474
Tractor roll over is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. ROPS (Roll-Overprotective Structures) are needed to prevent serious injury and death. It creates a protective zone around the operator when a rollover occurs. In India the ROPS is getting mandatory across all HP ranges except narrow track. In the present study states the customized ROPS application for configurable design such as Automated safety zone for all homologation standards, ROPS A0-D excel calculator for selection of material at concept stage and bolt calculator for selection of size. For the above applications below aspects need to consider such as Tractor weight, Rear housing mounting, Operator seat index position (SIP), Seat reference points (SRP) and all ROPS homologation standards. This ROPS application is to reduce the timeline, manual error and ensure the reliability of the modular optimal design for various platforms and variants.
Technical Paper

Designing and Static Analysis of the Roll Cage of an All-Terrain Vehicle (SAE e-Baja)

2020-09-25
2020-28-0378
An All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) as defined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a vehicle that travels on low pressure tires and with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with the handlebars for steering control. A roll cage can be defined as a skeleton of an ATV. It forms a structural base and 3-D shell around the driver. In case of impacts and roll over incidents, the roll cage is responsible for the protection of driver. The objective is to design, analyze and optimize the roll cage under a set of particular rules given by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). The static analysis is carried out using CATIA V5 software for different collisions like front, side, rear and roll over. The main objective of the analysis is to obtain a roll cage enough strong to bear such adverse conditions as well as light in weight for better performance. The safety of roll cage can be ensured by obtaining optimum factor of safety.
Standard

Operator Enclosure Pressurization System Test Procedure

2020-04-16
WIP
J1012
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform test procedure for evaluating performance of operator enclosure pressurization systems for construction, general-purpose industrial, agricultural, forestry, and specialized mining machinery as categorized in SAE J1116 for off-road, self-propelled work machines. The purpose of this document is to outline a procedure which will provide a uniform measurement of operator enclosure pressurization.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Content and Nature of the Dispersive Filler at the Formation of Coatings for Protection of the Equipment of River and Sea Transport

2020-01-23
Abstract To protect ship equipment of river and sea transport, it is suggested to use polymeric protective coatings based on epoxy diane oligomer ED-20, polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) curing agent and filler, which is a departure from industrial production. Thus the purpose of the work is analysis of major dependency of the properties on the content of fillers that allowed to revealed the critical filler content (furnace black) in composites to form a protective coating with the required set of characteristics. The infrared (IR) spectral analysis was used to investigate the presence of bonds on the surface of particles of the PM-75 furnace black, which allows us to assess the degree of cross-linking of the polymer. The influence of the content of dispersed furnace black on the physicomechanical and thermophysical properties and the structure of the protective coating is investigated.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Blast Protection Improvement of an Armored Vehicle Cab by Composite Armors and Anti-Shock Seats

2018-12-05
Abstract The objective of this article is to evaluate the effects of different blast protective modules to military vehicle structures and occupants. The dynamic responses of the V-shape integral basic armor, the add-on honeycomb sandwich structure module, and the anti-shock seat-dummy system were simulated and analyzed. The improvements of occupant survivability by different protective modules were compared using occupant injury criteria. The integral armored cab can maintain the integrity of the cab body structure. The add-on honeycomb sandwich armor reduces the peak structural deformation and velocity of the cab floor by 34.9% and 47.4%, respectively, compared with the cab with integral armors only. The integral armored cab with the anti-shock seat or the honeycomb sandwich structures reduces the occupant shock responses below the injury criteria. For different blast threat intensities, the selection of appropriate protective modules can meet protection requirements.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Rollcage Using Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments Approach

2018-04-15
2018-01-5014
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical method to find solutions to real world problems and is now commonly used for product development. Various finite element analyses are performed to validate the system performance. Many finite element codes are also available for this purpose. Now-a-days, product development not only deals with the validation of design performance, but also focuses on design optimization. Methods such as one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) experiments are generally used in which one input factor is varied at a time and its effect on system performance is studied. Design of Experiments (DOE) is a systematic approach in which more than one input factors are purposefully varied to study their effect on system performance. Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments approach can be used in combination for design optimization. This paper deals with the process for design optimization that can be followed using FEA and DOE in conjunction.
Collection

Advanced Analysis, Design, and Optimization for Materials, Restraints, and Structures for Enhanced Automotive Safety and Weight Reduction, 2018

2018-04-03
Papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs are included in the collection.
Collection

Advanced Analysis, Design, and Optimization for Materials, Restraints, and Structures for Enhanced Automotive Safety and Weight Reduction, 2017

2017-03-28
Papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs are included in the collection.
Technical Paper

Static Analysis on a Roll Cage Frame for an Off-Road Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1299
The objective of this research is to design and analyze a roll cage structure for an off-road vehicle that was used for SAE Baja competition by UNLV SAE Baja team. Baja SAE is an intercollegiate competition to design, fabricate, and race a small, single passenger, off-road vehicle powered by a 10 HP Briggs Stratton 4-Stroke gasoline engine. Since the off-road vehicle is powered by a small capacity engine, the weight of the structure is very critical and must be optimized to improve the performance of the vehicle. In an effort to optimize the structure, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed and the effects of stress and deformation were studied for a linear static frontal impact analysis on roll cage structure. The frame was further modified for structural rigidity. Additional strengthening gussets were added at the locations of high stresses to reduce the stress concentration.
Technical Paper

Bio-Inspired Design of Lightweight and Protective Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0396
Biologically inspired designs have become evident and proved to be innovative and efficacious throughout the history. This paper introduces a bio-inspired design of protective structures that is lightweight and provides outstanding crashworthiness indicators. In the proposed approach, the protective function of the vehicle structure is matched to the protective capabilities of natural structures such as the fruit peel (e.g., pomelo), abdominal armors (e.g., mantis shrimp), bones (e.g., ribcage and woodpecker skull), as well as other natural protective structures with analogous protective functions include skin and cartilage as well as hooves, antlers, and horns, which are tough, resilient, lightweight, and functionally adapted to withstand repetitive high-energy impact loads. This paper illustrates a methodology to integrate designs inspired by nature, Topology optimization, and conventional modeling tools.
Technical Paper

Design of an Advanced Layered Composite for Energy Dissipation using a 3D-Lattice of Micro Compliant Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-1538
This work introduces a new Advanced Layered Composite (ALC) design that redirects impact load through the action of a lattice of 3D printed micro-compliant mechanisms. The first layer directly comes in contact with the impacting body and its function is to prevent an intrusion of the impacting body and uniformly distribute the impact forces over a large area. This layer can be made from fiber woven composites imbibed in the polymer matrix or from metals. The third layer is to serve a purpose of establishing contact between the protective structure and body to be protected. It can be a cushioning material or a hard metal depending on the application. The second layer is a compliant buffer zone (CBZ) which is sandwiched between two other layers and it is responsible for the dampening of most of the impact energy.
Standard

Personnel Protection - Compact Tool Carriers

2015-09-23
CURRENT
J2752_201509
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to compact tool carriers sometimes called, but not limited to mini-loaders, mini skid-steer loaders or compact utility loaders. Machines having a seated-operator position are excluded from this standard. However, certain attachments for a compact tool carrier may provide a seated-operator position for the operation of the attachment.
Technical Paper

CAE Prediction and Test Correlation for Tractor Roll-over Protective Structure (ROPS)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1476
Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are safety devices which provide a safe environment for the tractor operator during an accidental rollover. The ROPS must pass either a dynamic or static testing sequence or both in accordance with SAE J2194. These tests examine the performance of ROPS to withstand a sequence of loadings and to see if the clearance zone around the operator station remains intact in the event of an overturn. In order to shorten the time and reduce the cost of new product development, non-linear finite element (FE) analysis is practiced routinely in ROPS design and development. By correlating the simulation with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the CAE model and its assumptions. The FE analysis follows SAE procedure J2194 for testing the performance of ROPS. The Abaqus version 6.12 finite element software is used in the analysis, which includes the geometric, contact and material nonlinear options.
Technical Paper

The Effect of External Roll Over Protective Structures on Mining and Exploration Light Vehicles (Pickup's/Bakkies)

2015-03-10
2015-01-0049
Within the exploration and resources sector some companies have required the fitment of Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS). The issues with respect to: no ROPS, internal ROPS or external ROPS are discussed. The practical experience of designing, testing, fitting external ROPS in southern Africa are detailed as well as the investigation and analysis of a number of rollover crashes of vehicles fitted with the external ROPS and injury outcomes are compared with USA rollover injury data.
Collection

Advanced Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Materials, Restraints, and Structures for Enhanced Automotive Safety and Weight Reduction, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection covers papers with an emphasis on, but not limited to, innovative ideas to enhance automotive safety with improved material constitutive modeling, analysis method developments, simulation and pre/post processing tools, optimization techniques, crash code developments, finite element model updating, model validation and verification techniques, dummies and occupants, restraint systems, passive safety as well as lightweight material applications and designs.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Roof Strength Methods in Quasi-Static and Dynamic Rollover Tests Using Finite Element Analysis of a 2003 Ford Explorer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0532
Different roof strength methods are applied on the 2003 Ford Explorer finite element (FE) model to achieve the current Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 216 requirements. Two different modification approaches are utilized. Additionally, the best design of each approach is tested dynamically, in rollover and side impact simulations. In the first approach, several roll cage designs are integrated in all pillars, roof cross-members, and in the side roof rails. A roll cage design with a strength-to-weight ratio (SWR) of 3.58 and 3.40 for driver and passenger sides, respectively, with a weight penalty of 18.54 kg is selected for dynamic test assessments. The second approach investigates different localized reinforcements to achieve a more reasonable weight penalty. A localized reinforcement of the B-pillar alone with a tube meets the new FMVSS 216 requirements with a weight penalty of 4.52 kg and is selected for dynamic analyses.
Technical Paper

Improving Safety Structures on Sprint and Midget Race Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-0561
A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have begun to receive increased attention in recent years, using the types of engineering analysis common to other industries such as aerospace engineering. As these new engineering approaches have begun to play a larger role in the motorsports industry, there has been an increase in the use of engineering tools in motorsports design and an increase in the inclusion of motorsports in the engineering education process. The design, modeling, and analysis aspects of a recent project examining the design of roll cages for American short-track open-wheel racing cars will be discussed in this paper. Roll cage structures were initially integrated into cars of this type in the 1960s. Countless lives have been saved and serious injuries prevented since the introduction of cages into these types of cars.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulation of a Pickup Truck Rollover Test: Impact Energy Analysis

2013-10-07
2013-36-0146
One of the most common events of injuries and deaths in mining activities is the vehicle rollover, for example, the rollover of pickup trucks used to carry freight and workers through this environment or out of it. One way to prevent these fatalities is the use of rollover protective structures (ROPS) which are safety devices fitted internal or externally to vehicles in order to provide protection to driver and passengers during an accidental rollover. The design of these devices is quite complex since it must be carried out analytical and numerical analyses and finally experimental tests. This latest is destructive and expensive since it is necessary a specific apparatus mounted in a large test field. The most widely used test for rollover in the automotive industry is the FMVSS-208 (U.S. Government) or SAE J2114-2011.
Journal Article

Occupant Rollover Protection in Motorsports

2013-04-08
2013-01-0800
Over the last twenty years, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) racing series. While proper occupant protection requires both occupant restraint and preservation of sufficient occupant survival space, this study is focused mainly on the latter of these two necessities. The NASCAR tubular vehicle chassis has evolved through the years to provide improved protection for the driver in rollover incidents. The chassis has continued to progress over time to improve its strength as unique crashes sometimes highlighted opportunities for advancement. Recent enhancements tested using computer modeling, quasi-static testing, and full scale drop tests have improved the roof structure of the stock car chassis. These improvements have been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup and Nationwide Series cars.
Standard

Specification Definitions - Hydraulic Backhoes

2012-07-16
HISTORICAL
J49_201207
This standard applies to hydraulic backhoes which have no more than 190 degrees of rotational swing, and are mounted on wheel tractors and crawler tractors.
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