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Technical Paper

Compaction-Based Deformable Terrain Model as an Interface for Real-Time Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

This paper discusses the development of a novel deformable terrain database and its use in a co-simulation environment with a multibody dynamics vehicle model. The implementation of the model includes a general tire-terrain traction model which is modular to allow for any type of tire model that supports the Standard Tire Interface[1] to operate on the terrain. This allows arbitrarily complex tire geometry to be used, which typically has a large impact on the mobility performance of vehicles operating on deformable terrains. However, this gain in generality comes at the cost that popular analytical pressure-sinkage terramechanics models cannot be used to find the normal pressure and shear stress of the contact patch. Pressure and shear stress are approximated by combining the contributions from tire normal forces, shear stresses and bulldozing forces due to soil rutting.
Journal Article

A Physics-Based Vehicle/Terrain Interaction Model for Soft Soil Off-Road Vehicle Simulations

In the context of off-road vehicle simulations, deformable terrain models mostly fall into three categories: simple visualization of the deformed terrain only, use of empirical relationships for the deformation, or finite/discrete element approaches for the terrain. A real-time vehicle dynamics simulation with a physics-based tire model (brush, ring or beam-based models) requires a terrain model that accurately reflects the deformation and response of the soil to all possible inputs of the tire in order to correctly simulate the response of the vehicle. The real-time requirement makes complex finite/discrete element approaches unfeasible, and the use of a ring or beam -based tire model excludes purely empirical terrain models. We present the development of a three-dimensional vehicle/terrain interaction model which is comprised of a tire and deformable terrain model to be used with a real-time vehicle dynamics simulator.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.