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Technical Paper

Intelligent Braking Management for Commercial Vehicles

The development of electronic intelligence and the continually increasing intensive knowledge of driving dynamics make it possible nowadays to conceive intelligent vehicle systems and to make such systems available for series production, which are capable of substantially enhancing the active safety of commercial vehicles. Through the implementation of advanced subsystems, which can be integrated as software packages into the basic electronic braking system, it will be possible to expand the possibilities of introducing assistance systems, which are capable of both, helping and relieving the driver from stress in critical situations. The driver will be relieved of all duties which could divert his attention or cause severe stress. As a consequence, the active safety of commercial vehicles will be considerably increased.
Technical Paper

The Compatibility of Tractor/Trailer-Combinations During Braking Maneuvers

The active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations plays an important role in regard to traffic safety in general. For improving the active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations, it is necessary to investigate the interactions between the towing vehicle and the trailer during braking maneuvers. This paper describes the ECE-regulations for the braking force distributions of tractor/full trailer- and tractor / semitrailer-combinations. The influence of different layouts of the braking systems within these regulations on the coupling forces between tractor and trailer and the driving performance of the units during braking is investigated. The dynamical behaviour of a tractor/full-trailer-combination and a tractor / semitrailer-combination are both discussed with the aid of simulations of the ISO-standard testing procedures “Braking in a turn” and “Braking straight ahead”.
Technical Paper

Results and Economical Aspects of Simulation Systems Evaluating the Braking and Steering Performance of Commercial Vehicles

The simulation of the driving performance of motor vehicles offers the possibility of analyzing the behavior of new commercial vehicles or new systems to be integrated into the vehicle, already before the stage of the first prototypes. Thus, simulation technology may contribute to shorten the time and costs needed for the development of new vehicles and new vehicle systems. As an example, this contribution describes the simulation of a commercial vehicle with adaptive suspension elements. The simulations were used to coarse-tune the suspension elements before installation and fine-tuning them in a prototype vehicle, and to define and optimize the control strategies of electronically controlled suspension systems. A comparison between the costs of the simulation and estimated costs of corresponding field tests substantiates the economical benefits of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Intelligent Suspension Systems for Commercial Vehicles

Economical and technical aspects justify intelligent suspension systems in commercial vehicles. The tasks of suspensions of vehicles are contradictionary and the prevailing problems cannot be readily solved with conventional suspension systems in a satisfying manner. However, advantages are acquired by the use of adaptive suspension systems. Varying the properties and characteristics of suspension systems in respect to the different loads transported by a commercial vehicle, to vehicle speeds and to dynamic maneuvers, nearly present as good results as closed loop controlled adaptive suspension systems do. For economical reasons fully active suspension systems are only installed in commercial vehicles performing special tasks and services. Partially active suspension systems reduce power consumption and demonstrate satisfactory efficiency.
Technical Paper

Engine Braking Systems and Retarders - An Overview from an European Standpoint

In particular on heavy duty commercial vehicles, the continuous braking systems “engine braking system” and “retarder”, which are independent of the service braking system, are installed to handle the continuous braking load on downhill stretches. These systems are also used to reduce lining wear and thermal loads of the service braking system. Exhaust braking systems are the most widely used form of engine braking systems. The current state-of-the-art in retarders is represented by two basic concepts, the electrodynamic retarder and the hydrodynamic retarder. A performance comparison of the different systems shows that low mountain descending speeds are the domain of engine braking systems, whereas retarders are more effective for medium and high descending speeds. The electrodynamic retarder is more favourable for lower road speeds, while the hydrodynamic retarder develops its effectiveness during higher downhill speeds.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Drum and Disc Brakes for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

An alternative to the current drum brakes, with the increased requirements of todays daily service are disc brakes, in that they offer, in contrast to the drum brakes, the following technical advantages and in turn enhance the active safety of modern commercial vehicles when braking: Enhanced brake pedal-feedback and actuation Improved efficiency Little performance losses when high thermal loads occur (fading). In order to be able to determine the improvement potential of disc brakes they will be compared to the commonly employed Simplex drum brakes. Both wheel brake systems (disc-/drum brakes and all variations) were tested on a computer controlled brake dynamometer and in field tests using a heavy duty commercial vehicle (class 8). The results are compared and conclusions drawn regarding “advantages/disadvantages”.