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Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0135
A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0118
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Journal Article

Validation of Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing with a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models

2013-04-08
2013-01-0692
The tractor trailer models discussed in this paper were for a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to test heavy truck electronic stability control (ESC) systems [1]. The accuracy of the simulation results relies on the fidelity and accuracy of the vehicle parameters used. However in this case where hardware components are part of the simulation, their accuracy also affects the proper working of the simulation and ESC unit. Hence both the software and hardware components have to be validated. The validation process discussed in this paper is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the validation of the TruckSim vehicle model, where experimental data is compared with simulation results from TruckSim. Once the vehicle models are validated, they are incorporated in the HIL simulation and the second section discusses the validation of the whole HIL system with ESC.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Technical Paper

Effects of ABS Controller Parameters on Heavy Truck Model Braking Performance

2006-10-31
2006-01-3482
This paper covers research conducted at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) examining the performance of semitrailer anti-lock braking systems (ABS). For this study, a vehicle dynamics model was constructed for the combination of a 4×2 tractor and a 48-foot trailer, using TruckSim. ABS models for the tractor and trailer, as well as brake dynamics and surface friction models, were created in Simulink so that the effect of varying ABS controller parameters and configurations on semitrailer braking performance could be studied under extreme braking maneuvers. The longitudinal and lateral performances of this tractor-trailer model were examined for a variety of different trailer ABS controller models, including the 2s1m, 4s2m, and 4s4m configurations. Also, alternative controllers of the same configuration were studied by varying the parameters of the 2s1m controller.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Tire Modeling Through Implementation of Load and Speed Dependent Coefficients

2005-11-01
2005-01-3543
An existing tire model was investigated for additional normal load-dependent characteristics to improve the large truck simulations developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Of the existing tire model coefficients, plysteer, lateral friction decay, aligning torque stiffness and normalized longitudinal stiffness were investigated. The findings of the investigation led to improvements in the tire model. The improved model was then applied to TruckSim to compare with the TruckSim table lookup tire model and test data. Additionally, speed-dependent properties for the NADS tire model were investigated (using data from a light truck tire).
Technical Paper

Comparison of ABS Configurations and Their Effects on Stopping Performance and Stability for a Class 8 Straight-Truck

2005-11-01
2005-01-3610
Direct vehicle performance comparisons were made between a full 6s/6m and a simpler 4s/4m system, as applied to a 6x4 Class 8 straight truck having a walking-beam rear suspension design. The 4s/4m system was run in both intermediate-axle control and trailing axle-control configurations. The systems were compared with modern air-disc brakes on the vehicle The systems were compared at LLVW (unladen) and GVWR (fully loaded) for high speed stopping performance and stability on a high-μ surface and a wetted split-μ surface, as well as Brake-in-Curve stability on a wetted low-μ 500-ft radius turn. In this paper, stopping distances are statistically compared to quantify effects of the various ABS control strategies on dry and wet stopping efficiency. In addition, newer techniques of using wheel-slip histograms generated from in-stop data are used to compare more detailed system behavior and predict their effects on vehicle stability under braking.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heavy Truck Foundation Brake Performance Measured with an Inertia Brake Dynamometer and Analyses of Brake Output Responses to Dynamic Pressure Inputs

2005-11-01
2005-01-3611
In support of NHTSA's studies of heavy truck brake types and their effects on vehicle stopping performance and stability, the NHTSA Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) has evaluated four foundation brake types on their Greening Brake Dynamometer. Several sample assemblies of each type of brake were tested to better understand variability. Braking tests were run under the “Laboratory Test Procedure for FMVSS 121D Air Brake Systems - Dynamometer” (TP- 121D-01) procedures. Afterward, the test scope was expanded to include higher speeds and higher severity conditions than those specified Test Procedure. This paper reports on the differences in braking effectiveness between two traditional S-Cam air brake types and two recently introduced Air Disc brake types. Burnish procedure trends are briefly discussed and compared. Responses of the pneumatic brakes to both constant-pressure and dynamic inputs are also compared and discussed.
Technical Paper

Air Disc and S-Cam Brake Stopping Performance Comparison for Class 8 Tractor and Trailer Combinations

2005-11-01
2005-01-3614
In an effort to reduce the dry stopping distance required for heavy trucks, it is imperative to increase the effectiveness of the foundation brake systems. Where brakes are torque limited, increasing the brake output can be obtained by increasing brake size, chamber size, slack length, and friction of the braking materials. Looking just at the aspect of foundation brakes, the majority of current tractor and trailer brakes are of the S-Cam and Drum type. Two commercially available alternatives that produce higher output are Air Disc brakes and larger sized S-Cam brakes. Using one type, or a combination of these brakes (discs and drums on different axles) warrants a comparative study. The goal is to improve the effectiveness of the brake system, while maintaining or improving upon vehicle stability during braking. NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center recently completed a brake test study of the effectiveness and stability characteristics of tractor and trailer combinations.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0413
This paper discusses the improvement of a heavy truck anti-lock brake system (ABS) model currently used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in conjunction with multibody vehicle dynamics software. Accurate modeling of this complex system is paramount in predicting real-world dynamics, and significant improvements in model accuracy are now possible due to recent access to ABS system data during on-track experimental testing. This paper focuses on improving an existing ABS model to accurately simulate braking under limit braking maneuvers on high and low-coefficient surfaces. To accomplish this, an ABS controller model with slip ratio and wheel acceleration thresholds was developed to handle these scenarios. The model was verified through testing of a Class VIII 6×4 straight truck. The Simulink brake system and ABS model both run simultaneously with TruckSim, with the initialization and results being acquired through Matlab.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Foundation Brake Configuration on Class-8 Tractor Dry Stopping Performance

2004-10-26
2004-01-2701
This paper discusses dry stopping performance comparisons of various foundation brake systems on Class-8 truck tractors (having a GVWR greater than 33,000 lbs.). For these studies, four configurations of foundation brakes were fitted to two modern 6x4 conventional truck tractors without modification to the control, application, or ABS systems. Foundation brakes compared include standard S-cam drum brakes on all six positions, high-output S-cam drum and then air disc brakes on the steer axles, and air disc brakes on all six brake positions. Discussions include analyses of stopping distance from 60 mph (96.6 kph) for all test conditions. The truck tractors were tested in two weight configurations, LLVW (i.e., bobtail) and GVWR (50,000 lbs. total axle weight, using an unbraked control semitrailer).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Foundation Brake Configuration on Class-8 Tractor Wet Stopping Performance and Stability

2004-10-26
2004-01-2702
This paper discusses wet stopping performance and stability comparisons of various foundation brake systems on Class-8 truck tractors (having a GVWR greater than 33,000 lbs.). For these studies, four configurations of foundation brakes were fitted to two modern 6×4 conventional truck tractors without modification to the control, application, or ABS systems. The foundation brakes compared include standard S-cam drum brakes on all six positions, two hybrid configurations (high-output S-cam drum and then air disc brakes on the steer axles), and air disc brakes on all six brake positions. The truck tractors were tested in two weight configurations, LLVW and GVWR using an unbraked control semitrailer. Analytical analyses of wet brake-in-curve testing indicate that the hybrid brake systems (employing higher-torque brakes on the steer axle only) might degrade brake-incurve performance. This disadvantage appeared to exist for both load conditions.
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