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Technical Paper

Load Program Development and Testing of Super Single Wheels in the Biaxial Wheel Test Rig and Numerical Pre-Design

2004-10-26
2004-01-2691
The validation of the wheel/hub assembly has been carried out in the Biaxial Wheel/Hub Test facility since the early ‘1980’s developed at Fraunhofer LBF. This test procedure became a standard at most of the European wheel and truck producers and was also introduced as SAE wheel standard J 2562, issued in 2003. For newly developed Super Single low profile tires 495/45R22.5, which will replace double rear tires on heavy trucks and buses, the corresponding steel and aluminum wheels had to be designed by the suppliers. Because of the lack of information about load data and load programs for testing, extensive research had to be undertaken. The load data had been measured in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler on a M.B. Actros on proving grounds and on the “Black Forest round track” in Germany. Based on the derived data a special “Eurocycle” load program has been developed for accelerated testing of the wheels in the Biaxial Wheel Test Rig.
Technical Paper

Procedure for Validation Tests on Air Springs for Commercial Vehicles

1998-11-16
982841
Air spring systems are increasingly used on suspensions for commercial vehicles. To prove their durability a reliable test procedure is necessary: to be applied already in the development stage to be used to qualify individual air spring manufacturers and to assure manufacturing quality. In this paper the test procedure, the test facility and some test results are presented. In the test facility the air spring is mounted on a fixture and is loaded by a servohydraulic actuator. The mounting of the air spring allows to simulate all operational deformations, being decisive for the durability. Based on the extensive measurements on proving ground and public roads the test program was worked out. The test program includes besides the loading and deformations during driving also kneeling operations as well as high and low temperatures. The accelerated laboratory tests deliver results which correspond to the existing experience at the service usage.
Technical Paper

Design Criteria and Durability Approval of Wheel Hubs

1998-11-16
982840
The design of wheel hubs must be based on stresses generated under customer usage through operational loads acting on the wheel. Therefore, the service loading conditions must be taken into account as well as the generated stresses and the hub fatigue properties. In this paper the decisive parameters for design and durability - operational loads, fatigue properties, which depend on material and manufacturing technology, and design - are discussed and the procedure for an optimum light-weight design is treated. Finally, the test procedure for durability approval, the corresponding test facility, the test programs and requirements, and some typical test results are presented.
Technical Paper

Durability Approval of Leaf Springs Under Operational Loading

1998-11-16
982839
Leaf springs must be regarded as safety components of a vehicle which failures can cause severe accidents. They have to fulfill various functions as a spring element and for guiding the axles and are also responsible for driving comfort. Therefore, the durability approval must be carried out under representative service-like loading, which take into account complex leaf deformations in operational usage. In this paper the influencing parameters for the durability approval of leaf spring suspensions are discussed and the test rig and the standardized test program SPRILOS (SPRIng LOad Sequence) for the durability approval are described.
Technical Paper

Procedure for Design Optimization and durability Life Approval of Truck Axles and Axle Assemblies

1989-11-01
892535
The method of fatigue life evaluation and validation testing under operational conditions is a prerequisite to achieve optimal designs with respect to weight and long-term durability of the structure considered. Criteria like driving behavior and braking performance, influenced by global stiffness as well as fatigue life evaluation were taken into account when optimizing a forged 6.5 front axle beam of a heavy truck. The procedure for weight optimization includes the following steps: Stress analysis e.g. using strain gage techniques and/or Finite Element Method, Road load data acquisition and derivation of design spectrum describing customer usage, Fatigue testing under constant amplitude and/or variable amplitude loading to establish component related SN-curves and/or fatigue life curves, Fatigue life evaluation using damage accumulation hypothesis (Miner's Rule), Optimization and weight reduction (in this case 14% weight savings were achieved) based on fatigue life evaluation.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Forged Wheel Hubs For Commercial Vehicles

1984-11-01
841706
The keen competition in the automobile industry has in many cases necessitated the adoption of new manufacturing techniques for vehicle components. Forgings especially are being replaced today by castings and fabricated components. The authors show on the example of a forged front wheel hub how weight savings of up to 30% may be achieved on a standard hub forging. The weight savings are achieved through a design methodology called “Service Strength Analysis,” whereby both structural analysis and testing are done under simulated service loadings. The wheel hub is a highly stressed safety component on which the function of other components such as axles, wheels and brakes depend. Service Strength Analysis allows lightweight design to be carried out without sacrifices of reliability; it also allows an effective evaluation of the influence of new low cost manufacturing techniques on the service strength of parts.
Technical Paper

Cast Aluminum Wheels for Trucks and Buses — Testing and Evaluation

1984-11-01
841705
The paper explains the most important criteria for the design of cast aluminum wheels on examples of recently developed European wheels. The basic differences in material behavior between steel and aluminum, such as fatigue strength, cyclic stress-strain properties and crack behavior are treated. The optimization of the wheel design is based on the fatigue strength of individual wheel sections which is determined through special test fixtures. The final proofout test for adequate fatigue life of the total wheel is established through a programmed test carried out in a new biaxial wheel test machine whereby the load program for testing European wheels represents European service conditions.
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