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Training / Education

Combustion and Emissions for Engineers

2019-12-09
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Technical Paper

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm for heavy commercial vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2550
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.
Technical Paper

Noise and vibration simulations method for electric hybrid tractor powertrain.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2469
Internal combustion (IC) engines have been serving as prime source of power in tractors, since late 19th Century. Over this period, there have been significant improvements in IC engine technology leading to increased power density, reduction in tailpipe emissions and refinement in powertrain noise of tractors. As the regulations governing tailpipe emissions continue to be more stringent, original equipment manufacturers also have initiated work on innovative approaches such as diesel-electric hybrid powertrains to ensure compliance with new norms. However, introduction of such technologies may impact customer’s auditory, vibratory and drivability perceptions. Absence of conventional IC engine noise, association of electric whistle and whine, torque changes with activation/de-activation of motors and transmission behavior under transient conditions may result in new NVH issues in hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

2019-11-21
2019-28-2487
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction.
Training / Education

The Basics of Internal Combustion Engines

2019-10-28
In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
Training / Education

Exhaust Flow Performance and Pressure Drop of Exhaust Components and Systems

2019-09-20
Designing more efficient and robust emission control components and exhaust systems results in more efficient performance, reduced backpressure and fuel penalty, and higher conversion efficiency. This course will help you to understand the motion of exhaust flow in both gasoline and diesel emission control components including flow-through and wall-flow devices such as catalytic converters, NOx adsorbers, diesel oxidation catalysts, diesel particulate filters as well as flow through the overall exhaust system.
Training / Education

Turbocharging Internal Combustion Engines

2019-09-16
The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
Training / Education

Control Systems Simplified

2019-09-11
The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems.
Technical Paper

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0111
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engines Retrofitted to Spark-Ignition Operation Fueled with Natural Gas

2019-09-09
2019-24-0030
Natural gas is a promising alternative gaseous fuel due to its availability, economic, and environmental benefits. A solution to increase its use in the heavy-duty transportation sector is to convert existing heavy-duty compression ignition engines to spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and injecting the natural gas inside the intake manifold. The use of numerical simulations to design and optimize the natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines can benefit both engine efficiency and emission. However, experimental data of natural gas combustion inside a bowl-in-piston chamber is limited. Consequently, the goal of this study was to provide high-quality experimental data from such a converted engine fueled with methane and operated at steady-state conditions, exploring variations in spark timing, engine speed and equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0093
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors’ methodology is based on the use of one-dimensional and 3-dimensional models. The former is able to perform the whole engine with faster simulations while the latter can study deeply the even more complex phenomena (turbulence, combustion, etc.), due to the presence and to the interaction of the two fuels, which occur in the cylinder for the most interesting operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

2019-09-09
2019-24-0082
Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the hardware-in-the-loop simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an engine and EAS model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A 0D mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the ECU. The main components of the airpath were parametrized according to data provided by the supplier and measurements.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: a Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0092
In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR, allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two stage turbocharger and an extremely high pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0151
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of SI Combustion Models for Natural-Gas Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0096
Flexible, reliable and consistent combustion models are necessary for the improvement of the next generation spark-ignition engines. Different approaches have been proposed and widely applied in the past. However, the complexity of the process involving ignition, laminar flame propagation and transition to turbulent combustion need further investigations. Purpose of this paper is to compare two different approaches describing turbulent flame propagation. The first approach is the one-equation flame wrinkling model by Weller, while the second is the Coherent Flamelet Model (CFM). Ignition is described by a simplified deposition model while the correlation from Herweg and Maly is used for the transition from the laminar to turbulent flame propagation. Validation of the proposed models was performed with experimental data of a natural-gas, heavy duty engine running at different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissive Behavior of a Heavy-Duty SI Gas Engine During WHTC

2019-09-09
2019-24-0121
In the arduous aim to reduce petroleum fuel consumption and toxic emissions, gaseous fuels can represent an alternative solution for heavy duty applications with respect to conventional liquid fuels. At the same time, the imposition of more stringent emissions regulations in the transport sector, is a crucial aspect to be considered also for the development of future gas engines. Scope of the present paper was to characterize a heavy duty spark ignition engine, under development for Euro VI compliance, with a particular focus on exhaust particulate emissions. In this sense, the engine was installed on a dynamic test bench, accurately instrumented to analyze combustion evolution, performance and exhaust pollutant emissions, along the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC).
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Exhaust Aftertreatment System of a Heavy Duty Engine by means of Variable Valve Timing

2019-09-09
2019-24-0143
In view of the current political debate, it can be assumed that the nitrogen oxide limits for commercial vehicles will be further reduced. This is also demonstrated by the currently voluntary certification of the CARB Optional Low NOX legislation, which requires nitrogen oxide emissions of 0.027 g / kWh. This corresponds to a reduction of 93% compared to the current EU VI standard. Therefore, the optimization of EAT systems represents an essential research focus for future commercial vehicle applications. One way to optimize the EAT system may be the usage of variable valve actuation. Existing investigations show an exhaust gas temperature increase with Miller timing, but the authors conclude that it cannot accelerate the heating process. With regard to the effects on the exhaust aftertreatment system and the resulting tailpipe emissions, only improved HC and CO oxidation could be identified so far.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Particulate Measurement Techniques at a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Test Bed

2019-09-09
2019-24-0158
In addition to particle number and mass, knowledge about particulate size distribution (PSD) in the exhaust gas of combustion engines increases in importance due to a significant correlation between particle size and effectiveness of particulate filters and the respirability of soot. There are different ways and measurement devices available for the measurement of soot and its properties. Especially for small particle diameters (D<1µm), the PSD is usually characterized by the electrical mobility of the sampled particles. These measurements are subjected to uncertainty mainly due to air dilution of the sampled gas, installation of the probe, temperatures as well as the measurement principle and device itself.
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