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Training / Education

The Basics of Internal Combustion Engines

2020-11-16
In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
Technical Paper

Experimental Rattle Source Characterization Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

2020-09-30
2020-01-1541
Minimising rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the IC engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible.
Technical Paper

Determination of energy-saving potentials by reducing the rolling bearing friction in the tractor drive train

2020-09-27
2020-24-0024
Increased efficiency and emission reduction have, in recent years, introduced several changes in the architecture of agricultural tractors transmissions. As one of the leading rolling bearing manufacturers for this industry, Schaeffler has explored energy saving potentials related to rolling bearings friction reduction. Starting point of the activity is the actual status of the design of tractor transmission manufactured by one of the key players in the sector.
Technical Paper

Retrofit of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck: Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Architectures with Waste Heat Recovery

2020-09-27
2020-24-0015
This paper describes and compares different powertrain configurations for the retrofit of a heavy-duty Class 8 truck, powered by a 12.6 liters diesel engine. The engine is firstly equipped with an electrification-oriented organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and then coupled to a traction electric machine into a hybrid powertrain. An electrification-oriented ORC system can produce enough energy to cover the ancillary loads, which in long-haul applications for freight transportation are quite demanding. Nevertheless, only powertrain hybridization can achieve significant improvements in the overall system efficiency. Both systems may thus be implemented in the same vehicle, but an efficiency improvement is guaranteed only if the system is carefully managed so as to reach a trade-off between the requirements and potential benefits of the ORC system and those of the hybrid powertrain.
Technical Paper

On the effects of Turbocharger on Particle Number and Size Distribution in a Heavy - Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0007
Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects. The severity varies based on the particle size as they deposit at different parts in the respiratory system. After-treatment systems are employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of the after-treatment system depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size could potentially be used in reducing particle number or changing the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of HD diesel engine’s turbine on non-volatile particle number and size distribution.
Technical Paper

CFD Numerical Reconstruction of the Flash Boiling Gasoline Spray Morphology

2020-09-27
2020-24-0010
The numerical reconstruction of the liquid jet generated by a multi-hole injector, operating in flash-boiling conditions, has been developed by means of an Eulerian- Lagrangian CFD code and validated thanks to experimental data collected with schlieren and Mie scattering imaging techniques. The model has been tested with different injection parameters in order to recreate various possible engine thermodynamic conditions. The work carried out is framed in the growing interest present around the gasoline direct-injection systems (GDI). Such technology has been recognized as an effective way to achieve better engine performance and reduced pollutant emissions. High-pressure injectors operating in flashing conditions are demonstrating many advantages in the applications for GDI engines providing a better fuel atomization, a better mixing with the air, a consequent more efficient combustion and, finally, reduced tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

Innovative setting bracket design to improve the tractor Fit and Finish between the Bonnet and Custer panel (Scuttle)

2020-09-25
2020-28-0479
In the tractor bonnet will mounted on the front axle and Custer panel (Scuttle) will mount on the clutch housing. As the Custer panel (Scuttle) is the fixed part and the Bonnet will be swing openable type. We will provide the gap of 5mm between the parts but Due to the manufacturing process variation between the parts and accordingly Tolerances are stack up and its create the more Gap variation between the Bonnet and Custer panel (Scuttle). This Gap varies ±5mm As it’s the customer front view point it create the astatic fit and finish issue. Hence to overcome this we designed the intermediate bracket and gauge design to mount the bonnet first and internal intermediate bracket is mounted in position by using the setting gauge. This internal intermediate bracket will taken care the Stack up variation. Now Custer panel (Scuttle) will mount on intermediate bracket. Hence, we achieved the gap between the bonnet and Scuttle
Technical Paper

Mobility Performance Prediction Model For Main Battle Tanks

2020-09-25
2020-28-0355
Mobility performance prediction models for tracked vehicles are well established as seen from the literature reviews. However, these simulation models are more suitable for commercial vehicle applications than for military vehicles which operate under wide range of terrain conditions and hostile environment. Most of the models do not take into account the effect of cooling fans, soft ground rolling resistance and torque converter to predict mobility, and therefore using them for military vehicles would pose vital problems and not yield the expected results. This paper attempts to address these problems by using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model, which takes into account these factors for a 65 tonne Main Battle Tank (MBT) as a case study. A simulation model for the above vehicle was developed incorporating effects of cooling fan and torque converter. The results were validated with published trial data for an in-service Main Battle Tank of the same weight class.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in On-Road 6-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0347
According to the latest emission standards, NOx and PM emission from on road heavy duty diesel engines need to have a dramatic reduction. To limit these emissions, an aftertreatment system consist of diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, selective catalytic reduction and ammonia slip catalyst is installed downstream of the engine. DOC plays the vital role in controlling CO and HC emissions in diesel engines. DOC is a flow-through monolith honeycomb structure coated with platinum group metal. As the hot exhaust gases comes in contact with catalyst, pollutants get oxidized into a harmless substance such as carbon dioxide and water. The aim of this paper is to analyze performance of diesel oxidation catalyst. It includes HC oxidation test where raw fuel is dosed at the inlet of DOC to check HC oxidation efficiency and HC slip through DOC. In NO-NO2 oxidation test, analysis of NO oxidation efficiency of DOC by running PTP cycle is carried out.
Technical Paper

Concept Design and Analysis of Mini E-Tractor

2020-09-25
2020-28-0517
This paper deals with the concept design of a mini tractor which is suitable for mild ploughing operations with 5 kW electric motor. The low cost battery driven mini tractor operates on a lead acid batteries. The design principles and calculations of electric tractor powertrain are studied and delineated in details. By using these calculations, parameters of the main components like drive motor, battery and transmission are obtained. The powertrain model of an electric tractor is modelled with MATLAB/Simulink to estimate the tractor and battery performance. The CAD model of tractor is done in Solidworks and CAE analysis of chassis is performed to ensure safety and reliability. Calculations are performed for tractor subsystems such as steering system and braking system. The analysis results confer the design as safe and satisfactory in terms of performance. Keywords: Electric tractor, CAE analysis, MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology in On-Road 6-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0324
Diesel engines have been widely popularized as a power source for vehicles because of its reliable horsepower and excellent fuel economy. Diesel engines are considered as one of the dangerous sources of pollution. PM and NOx are the dominant pollutants emitting in exhaust gases. As per the supreme court order, Indian market will see only the sale of Bharat Stage-VI vehicles from April 1, 2020. More stringent NOx standards in BS-VI legislation for heavy duty vehicles would help to reduce NOx emission around 88.57% and 86.85% for steady and transient test cycles respectively. Urea SCR technology is used for reduction of NOx level. SCR is a media of converting NOx into diatomic nitrogen and water with the aid of Cu-Zeolite catalyst. Aqueous urea named as DEF is used as reductant which is added in a stream of exhaust gases. This experimental study focuses on performance evaluation of urea-SCR system in heavy duty vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design & Development of Metal Matrix Based Mounting bracket for Commercial vehicle application

2020-09-25
2020-28-0463
Automakers are being subjected to increasingly strict fuel economy requirements which led OEMs to focus more on Light weighting and Energy efficiency areas. Considering the aforesaid challenges, efforts has been taken in Light weighting of Mounting bracket for Engine application. This paper deals with conversion of Engine accessory bracket from Aluminium material to Metal Matrix composite (MMC). In Design phase, existing bracket has been studied for its structural requirements and further Bracket is designed to meet MMC process requirement and CAE carried out for topology optimization and Structural integrity. In Validation phase, Component is Validated at Test bed and Vehicle level for its reliability and durability. Finally observations and results were compared for Existing design and Proposed design and further optimization proposed.
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