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Training / Education

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Battery Systems

2021-11-04
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and higher efficiency, hybrid vehicles are appearing in many different configurations on today's roadways. While the powertrain components such as the drive motor, motor controller and cooling system are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the battery systems are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This seminar will introduce participants to the concepts of hybrid vehicles, their missions and the role of batteries in fulfilling those requirements.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of High Voltage xEV, Safety, and PPE

2021-04-16
Do you know what personal protective equipment (PPE), tools, and instruments are needed to keep you safe around high voltage (HV) vehicles? Are you aware of how to protect yourself or your employees when working around high voltage systems and platforms? Safety is paramount when working around any type of high voltage. As electric vehicles (EV) and EV fleets become more prevalent, the critical need for OEMs, suppliers, companies, and organizations to provide comprehensive safety training for teams working with or around xEV systems and platforms increases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Spark Assisted Cold Idle Operation in a Heavy-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

2021-04-06
2021-01-0410
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has been shown to offer benefits in the NOx-PM tradeoff over conventional diesel combustion while still achieving high fuel efficiency. However, due to gasoline’s low reactivity, it is challenging for GCI to attain robust ignition and stable combustion under cold operating conditions. Building on previous work to evaluate glow plug assisted GCI combustion at cold idle, this work evaluates the use of a spark plug to assist combustion. The closed-cycle 3-D CFD model was validated against GCI test results at a compression ratio (CR) of 17.3 during extended cold idle operation under laboratory controlled conditions. A market representative, ethanol-free, gasoline (RON92, E0) was used in both the experimental and the analysis work. Spark-assisted simulations were performed by incorporating an ignition model and examining the spark energy required for stable combustion at cold start.
Technical Paper

New Fuel-Cell Hybrid Architecture for Heavy-Duty Trucks Applications

2021-04-06
2021-01-0727
heavy duty trucks are generally powered by powerful Diesel engines, this type of engine is very polluting and its development requires a high cost. Hybridization of heavy duty trucks is a solution that helps reduce polluting emissions, reduce development costs and optimize performances. The heavy duty trucks hybrid architectures generally use a battery with a very high cost, weight and volume to ensure the required performances and high autonomy. In this paper, a new series hybrid architecture for heavy duty trucks is presented. This architecture combines the use of a battery with a fuel cell. This makes it possible to reduce the cost, size and weight of the battery and the size of the diesel engine while ensuring the demanded performances with high range. This new hybrid architecture, the energy management strategy and the obtained results are presented in this paper. Keywords: Heavy duty trucks, hybrid powertrain, Fuel-cell.
Technical Paper

Design and construction of an experimental test bench for storing kinetic energy in a flywheel

2021-04-06
2021-01-0300
The development of energy storage systems has gained increasing interest in recent years, as global energy policies and protocols demand to regulate and use available energy efficiently. Inertia flywheels constitute a simple means of energy storage, which has been integrated into different mechanical systems such as die-cutting machines, internal combustion engines, modern systems such as regenerative braking in automobiles, uninterruptible power systems, etc. In this research work, the design process of a flywheel-based experimental test bench to be used as an up-to 130 kilojouls energy storage capacity stand, and also to test small capacity internal combustion engines, and to diagnose de performance of engine starters. Setting the requirements and main specifications, the paper presents the followed design process, including the solid modeling, the calculations for the dimensioning of the final concept and prototype.
Technical Paper

Stereo Vision based Pothole Detection System for Improved Ride Quality

2021-04-06
2021-01-0085
Stereo vision based sensing systems have gained significant attention during the last two decades due to its reliable and accurate obstacle detection and recognition capabilities. Such systems with advanced processing units are now widely used in partially automated vehicles to improve passengers’ safety and comfort level. A predictive suspension control system that could provide better ride comfort and safety to the passengers by detecting potholes in advance and control the suspension system accordingly has been investigated in this study. Potholes can become serious safety hazard and can often cause discomfort if not detected and maneuvered at the right time. In this paper, a novel stereo vision based pothole detection system is proposed that detects pothole and calculates its depth accurately.
Technical Paper

Leveraging Risk Tolerances and Simple Kinematics to Quantify Fault Tolerant Time Intervals for Commercial Trucks

2021-04-06
2021-01-0066
The ISO 26262 series of standards for vehicle functional safety codify requirements to avoid unreasonable risk from the failure of electrical or electronic (E/E) systems. E/E failures may cause malfunctioning behavior that manifest as vehicle-level hazardous events. The Fault Tolerant Time Interval (FTTI) quantifies the minimum time span from the occurrence of a fault to the possible occurrence of a hazardous event. Often, the subjectivity involved in defining unreasonable risk and hazardous event onset frustrates consensus among stakeholders. The highly distributed nature of E/E system development and integration further complicates forging unified safety concepts. This paper introduces the Risk Threshold (RT) Method to clarify the boundary between acceptable and unreasonable risk. RT is defined as the acceptable travel distance caused by a malfunctioning behavior.
Technical Paper

Robust Control of Commercial Vehicle’s Speed Using Disturbance Observer

2021-04-06
2021-01-0966
This paper proposes a speed controller using a disturbance observer to regulate the speed of a commercial vehicles, and presents vehicle test results to evaluate the performance of the proposed controller. Most ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System) and automated driving systems need to reliably regulate the vehicle's speed under any circumstances. A conventional PID controller is commonly used to control the vehicle speed, but performance of it varies depending on changes in external conditions. Commercial vehicles are even more susceptible to these changes than passenger cars and more difficult to obtain an accurate plant model. Considering these features, a speed controller using a disturbance observer is designed for commercial vehicles. The proposed controller treats changes in external conditions as disturbances. The modeling uncertainty is also treated as a disturbance.
Technical Paper

Research and Parameter Optimization on Ride Comfort and Road Friendliness of Interconnected Air Suspension for Commercial Vehicles

2021-04-06
2021-01-0316
In order to improve the ride comfort and road friendliness of heavy commercial vehicles, a lateral interconnected air suspension system is developed. The lateral interconnected air suspension exchanges gas between air springs to reduce body vibration and tire load on the ground. Based on the theory of thermodynamics and vehicle dynamics, a 10-DOF vehicle dynamics model with lateral interconnected air suspension is established. Interconnected pipeline parameters and excitation frequency’ influence on characteristics of air suspension system in whole vehicle are calculated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the stiffness of air suspension decreases gradually with the increase of interconnected pipeline diameter and the damping of air suspension decreases gradually with the increase of excitation frequency. The designed interconnected air spring experiments verify the simulation results.
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