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Technical Paper

Design, Modeling and Analysis of Roll Cage for SAE BAJA Vehicle

2024-10-17
2024-28-0012
This paper studies design parameters, selection of materials and structural analysis for an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) BAJA roll cage at the event site in any possible situation. SolidWorks 2022 was used for creating the prototype of the roll cage and then both static structural as well as dynamic crash analysis for the roll cage was done using Altair HyperWorks 2023 for various collisions like front, rear, side, rollover, torsional, front bump, rear bump, front roll over, side roll over and rear roll over. In addition to their corresponding deformation, Von Mises stresses were observed and a safety factor was calculated for these load cases which was found to be in the range of 1.5 to 3. Without reducing the roll cage’s strength, the roll cage designed for a four-wheel drive configuration is developed with driver comfort and safety in mind. Finding the optimal safety factor is the core objective of the analysis, as it ensures in any situation, the ATV’s roll cage will stay secure.
Technical Paper

A case study of Engine Cooling system simulation and modelling for Air Conditioning application in a Medium Duty Truck

2024-09-19
2024-28-0106
Climate across India varies from extreme Cold to extreme hot. As an objective to improve comfort to drivers during summer, it is mandate by Indian Government to introduce Air Conditioning in Trucks from June 2025. Air Conditioning system includes Evaporator, compressor, Condenser and expansion units. Condenser needs continuous air flow to reject the absorbed heat from driver cabin to surrounding air. This is possible by directing air through condenser by an external fan. For this condenser is remotely mounted with an electric driven fan or directly to the radiator-fan system. In this paper a case study is presented where Cooling system of a Non AC Intermediate Commercial Truck is modified for Air Conditioning application. Condenser is mounted on the radiator and the additional heat load is managed by a minor change in the system. Fan is operated based on coolant temperature and with additional controls for Air Conditioning. Simulations are done in a Thermal management software “KULI”.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis and Design Optimization of Cooling System for Construction Vehicles

2024-09-19
2024-28-0116
A well-designed cooling system is crucial in construction machines for efficient heat dissipation from vital components, including the radiator, hydraulic oil cooler, transmission oil cooler, and charge air cooler. The radiator ensures optimal engine performance and longevity by maintaining a stable operating temperature. Hydraulic oil coolers preserve hydraulic system efficiency, while transmission oil coolers protect the transmission from excessive heat, extending its lifespan. Charge air coolers optimize engine performance through denser intake air. The robust cooling system enhances system reliability, reduces downtime, and increases operator safety in demanding construction environments. The size and location of coolers are critical in cooling system design.
Technical Paper

Electrifying Vocational Trucks: an Overview of Advancements and Challenges in Electric and Hybrid Powertrains with Emphasis on Auxiliary Power Considerations

2024-09-18
2024-24-0005
Electric and hybrid powertrains are steadily gaining popularity, showcasing their efficacy in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, particularly in urban environments. This also applies to medium and heavy-duty vocational trucks. Truck manufacturers have been expanding their electrified portfolio and some of them have already announced their plans to phase out fossil fuels. Vocational trucks are essential for the industry of commercial vehicles, represent an extremely heterogeneous class, and are often upfitted by third-party companies. In general, vocational trucks are designed for specific jobs. Typically, they are driven on short routes, but they may work for longer hours in comparison to freight transportation vehicles. Most importantly, among the broad category of vocational trucks, some vehicles greatly exploit power take-offs to drive auxiliary systems, like refuse trucks, utility trucks, cement trucks, and sweeper trucks.
Technical Paper

Techno-economic Analysis of mobile Carbon Capture for Heavy Duty Applications

2024-09-18
2024-24-0037
Since signing the legally binding Paris agreement, fighting climate change has been an increasingly important task worldwide. One of the key energy sectors to emit greenhouse gases is transportation. Therefore, long term strategies all over the world have been set up to reduce on-road combustion emissions. One of the emerging alternative technologies to decarbonize the transportation sector is Mobile Carbon Capture (MCC). MCC refers to the on-board separation of CO2 from vehicle exhaust. To accurately assess this technology, a techno-economic analysis is essential to compare MCC abatement cost to alternative decarbonization technologies such as electric trucks. Adding to the system capital and operational costs, our study includes mass penalty costs, CO2 offloading and transport costs for different transport scenarios. To better relate to a single consumer (driver), the cost can be converted from dollar per-tCO2 to dollar per-trip or dollar per-mile.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Future of Road Freight Transport Under Different Scenarios

2024-09-18
2024-24-0024
Fighting climate change has become a major task worldwide. Alongside the United States and China, Europe is considered as one of the biggest greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. Therefore, the European Union (EU) has set long term strategies to reduce emissions. One of the key energy sectors to emit greenhouse gases is transportation. In this context, EU has turned its eye toward cutting emissions from the transport sector and has recently put its stamp of approval on a reworked law banning all new sales of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles from 2035. Despite representing only 2% of the vehicles on the road, trucks account for more than a quarter of road transport emissions in the EU and have been increasing every year since 1990.
Technical Paper

Analysis of ICE-to-Electric Powertrain Conversion for a Small Size Waste Collection Vehicle

2024-09-18
2024-24-0017
Electrification or hybridization of commercial vehicles offers a promising avenue for mitigating emissions in urban environments. This concept is particularly applicable to waste collection vehicles, which move in urban contexts along repeatedly chosen driving cycles. Municipal waste collection and transport are functional tasks which have a significant impact on the urban environment in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In this work, the evaluation of a full-electric powertrain was carried out for a small size waste collection vehicle operating in the historic center of the city of Perugia (Italy). First, the vehicle model was developed and validated starting from experimental data collected by the local waste collection company (Gesenu SpA), using a state-of-the-art gasoline powertrain (internal combustion engine).
Technical Paper

Simulation of a City Bus Vehicle: Powertrain and Driving Cycle Sensitivity Analysis

2024-09-18
2024-24-0003
The transportation sector is witnessing a paradigm shift towards more sustainable and efficient propulsion systems, with a particular focus on public transportation vehicles such as buses. In this context, hybrid powertrains combining internal combustion engines with electric propulsion systems, have emerged as prominent contenders due to their ability to offer significant fuel savings and CO2 emissions reductions compared to conventional diesel powertrains. In this study, the simulation of a complete hybrid bus vehicle is carried out to evaluate the impact of two different hybrid powertrain architectures, compared to the diesel reference one. The selected vehicle is a 12-m city bus, which performs typical urban driving routes represented by well-known real measured driving cycles. First, the vehicle model was developed using a state-of-the-art diesel powertrain (internal combustion engine) and validated against literature data.
Training / Education

Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

2024-09-12
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. The goal of this two-day course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
Training / Education

Introduction to Battery Technology in BEVs, HEVs, and PHEVs

2024-09-10
This course explores the design and performance of battery technologies used in today’s battery-electric vehicles. It focuses on the skills required to define a battery pack design, how battery packs are manufactured, and tests required before entering the market. Participants will leave the course equipped with tools to understand vehicle battery specifications and be able to extract the useful information from the large volume of electric vehicle content published daily. It also defines and analyzes fundamentals of battery operation and performance requirements for HEV, PHEV, EREV and full electric vehicle applications.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of Batteries for Mobility Applications

2024-09-09
How are batteries used in the mobility industry? This three-week hybrid course introduces how batteries fit into the energy context and provides the fundamental knowledge and state-of-the-art insights into battery technologies. It will cover the key role of batteries as a tool for energy storage, the main components and parameters that characterize a battery, and the electrochemical phenomena that lie behind battery operation.
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