Road transportation is accelerating it’s shift from fossil fuels to electric power in the last one decade which has resulted in various electrification efforts across different levels including E-cycles, 2 Wheelers, 3 wheelers, cars and commercial vehicle applications. The main components across any road transport are the battery system, electric motor, Field Oriented Controllers which communicate with the vehicle control unit, and helps the motor to perform effectively and efficiently under various operating conditions. The core system of motor and controller is very critical during operation and its reliability at any given point of time is paramount. The motor and controller system in some applications like 2 wheeler applications are customized with shorter connections to save space, eliminate longer wiring harnesses and it calls for higher reliability due to lesser serviceability and compact design.
With the shift towards the electric vehicles in the present world scenario, pick-up trucks play a significant role in providing much commercial and private transportation of goods. Focusing on the application of food delivery by electric pick-up trucks, by using solar powered thermoelectric generator, the food temperature and texture can be maintained that increases customer satisfaction. The power generated by the solar panels can be utilized for the purpose without increasing the load on the battery. Also, the additional solar energy can be used to charge the battery is a way to increase the efficiency and decrease the dependency on non-renewable sources. In this basic research, the electric power train mathematical model is developed in the MATLAB and Simulink. Using the solar panel model the size of the solar panel needed in order to acquire the power needed to run the thermoelectric generator and charge the battery is calculated.
The internal rotor and related parts of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) utilized in electric cars are being designed with optimization as the key objective of this study. The goal is to achieve the best "NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness)" performance while maintaining the mechanical integrity and longevity of the motor. By matching the motor's NVH characteristics with its peak and continuous power needs depending on the duty cycle of the vehicle, the study seeks to improve overall vehicle performance. The researchers use advanced NVH simulation modeling and simulation methods with the "CAE Software" finite element software program to do this. The ultimate goal is to enhance the motor's noise and vibration characteristics while assuring its durability and long-term performance.
To ensure compliance with emission targets, alternative fuels are playing an increasingly important role in reducing exhaust emissions. One effective and cost-efficient method of quickly achieving sustainable reductions in emissions is through the use of modern com-bustion engines that operate on hydrogen (H2). Within the framework of the energy trans-formation, often compared to Germany's "Energiewende," CO2-neutral solutions are of vital importance across all industries, with the mobility sector being particularly crucial. Hy-drogen, as a carbon-free fuel, is a viable alternative to conventional fuels and has been the focus of scientific research for some time. In many aspects, the development of hydrogen combustion engines remains in the con-ceptualization phase.
Electrification of off-road vehicle powertrains can increase mobility, improve energy efficiency, and enable new utility by providing high amounts of electrical power for auxiliary devices. These vehicles often operate in extreme temperature conditions at low ground speeds and high-power levels while also having significant cooling air-path restrictions. The restrictions are a consequence of having grilles and/or louvers in the airpath to prevent damage from the operating environment. Moreover, the maximum operating temperatures for high voltage electrical components, like batteries, motors, and power-electronics, can be significantly lower than those of the internal combustion engine. Rejecting heat at a lower temperature gradient requires higher flow rates of air for effective heat exchange to the operating environment at extreme temperature conditions.
This study investigates the effect of exhaust rebreathe (RB) on the low-load regime of a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) heavy-duty engine. For this engine, a custom-designed cam profile with a second exhaust event occurring during the intake stroke was tested under different experimental load and speed conditions. First, the study focuses on the of rebreathe on combustion and gas exchange processes in the low load range of 240-300 kPa BMEP at three key speeds: 820, 1200, and 1600 rpm. Then, a general analysis of the thermal management of this technology is assessed in the low-load map, evaluating the impact on turbine outlet temperature and after-treatment performance related to the conversion rates for NOx and total hydrocarbons (THC). The detailed analysis revealed an increase of around 9% in the trapped residuals for the RB operation, translating to an in-cylinder temperature increase and raising the exhaust temperature up to 50°C.
Estimated engine torque is an important parameter used by automotive systems for automated transmission and clutch control. Heavy duty engine and transmission manufacturers widely use SAE J -1939 based ECU torque calculation based on mass air/fuel flow steady state maps created during calibration of the engine for this purpose. As an alternative, to enhance the accuracy of this important control variable, a virtual flywheel torque sensor (VFTS) was developed. It measures the engine torque based on the harmonics of the instantaneous flywheel speed signal. Initial testing showed the VFTS measured torque values within 12% of the actual measured torque over the range of conditions tested. In this paper, the real time test data of VFTS on-road truck conditions is reported. A loaded heavy truck (Cummins isx 15 engine and eaton 18 speed transmission) with gross vehicle weight rating of 80,000 pounds is used to test VFTS torque sensor at 2% grade oval lap at Eaton proving grounds.
It is a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) using a lithium titanate battery. The proposal aims to use a battery of just the right size as the power core of the system to help the engine maintain maximum efficiency. The performance of lithium titanate battery is between battery and capacitor. It also has anti-overcharge, anti-over-discharge and high temperature stability, suitable for use in vehicles. The engine only works when the SOC is low, independent of the power requirement. By increasing the battery to the extent that it can supply the motor, the system directly suppresses the influence of power on the engine speed, and the engine runs completely at the optimal BSFC. The lithium titanate battery has a rate of up to 5C, which directly shortens the working time of the engine. The battery will not be as large as an EV, and the vehicle still has a certain amount of pure electric mileage.
n these days, not only low exhaust emission but also carbon dioxide reduction is required to deal with climate change toward carbon neutral. In addition, examination of electrification and decarbonized fuel is progressing. On the other hand, industrial machines have issues for charging infrastructure and trends of off-road powertrain are expected to be diversified depending on usage environment or applications. As a result, in terms of diesel engines below 19kW, it should be the best way for satisfying the social needs to develop new diesel engines which have high environmental performance by optimizing engine combustion. In the case of diesel engines below 19kW, indirect injection (IDI) combustion system by mechanical injection control is mainstream because it is difficult for the engines below 19kW to adopt the direct injection combustion system and common rail system due to restriction of chamber’s volume.
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion eliminates issues of higher particulate matter and nitrogen oxide emissions that prevail in traditional compression ignition (CI) combustion mode. The complete replacement of traditional fuels with renewable fuels for internal combustion engines is challenging because significant infrastructure changes in production and delivery systems are required to ensure renewable fuel availability and economic feasibility. Thus, the use of renewable acetone blended with traditional gasoline has been proposed in the present study to smoothen the transition from traditional CI to HCCI engines. HCCI experiments were performed in a light-duty diesel engine at 1500 rpm rated speed. By varying the volumetric quantity of acetone in gasoline from 20% to 40%, the HCCI engine load range from 20%-60% was achieved, which was significantly improved over the limited diesel HCCI engine load range of 20%-38%.
In recent years there has been a significant focus towards bringing EVs to the market because of the regulations in carbon emissions and increased customer awareness. Unlike the passenger car and two wheelers that are mainly used for personal transportation, the three wheelers are widely used as commercial vehicles to carry passengers and loads. Higher capacity batteries are used in these vehicles to achieve the range, thus increasing the initial cost and making it unpopular among customers. However, requirements of the three-wheeler electric vehicles are high in big institutions, resorts, golf course, hospitals and many other places for internal campus transportation. It is not commercially viable to make a complete design of Body-In-white (BIW) & suspension for this application. Hence, a method of converting an existing three-wheeler into an EV is explained here. Finite element analysis is carried out for the critical structural members.