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Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: a 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty truck engines are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy required on-board, in order to achieve a range comparable to that of diesels. This paper considers a commercial 6-cylinder engine with a displacement of 12.8 L, developed in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver more than 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the CNG configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW at 1800 rpm. Maintaining the same combustion chamber design of the last version, a theoretical study is carried out in order to run the engine on Hydrogen, compressed at 700 bar. The study is based on GT-Power simulations, adopting a predictive combustion model, calibrated with experimental results. The study shows that the implementation of a combustion system running on lean mixtures of Hydrogen, permits to cancel the emissions of CO2, while maintaining the same power output of the CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Path-Tracking Control for Four-Wheel Steer/Drive Agricultural Special Electric Vehicles Considering Stability

2024-04-25
2024-01-5051
With the modernization of agriculture, the application of unmanned agricultural special vehicles is becoming increasingly widespread, which helps to improve agricultural production efficiency and reduce labor. Vehicle path-tracking control is an important link in achieving intelligent driving of vehicles. This paper designs a controller that combines path tracking with vehicle lateral stability for four-wheel steer/drive agricultural special electric vehicles. First, based on a simplified three-degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model, a model predictive control (MPC) controller is used to calculate the front and rear axle angles. Then, according to the Ackermann steering principle, the four-wheel independent angles are calculated using the front and rear axle angles to achieve tracking of the target trajectory.
Event

2024-04-13
Event

Why Attend the Urban Ground Mobility Digital Summit

2024-04-13
If you’re working to balance the implementation of today’s urban ground mobility (UGM) vehicles with tomorrow’s biggest challenges and opportunities, then you belong at the premier of SAE’s Urban Ground Mobility Digital Summit.

2022 Thermal Management Systems Symposium

2024-04-13
Thermal Management Systems Symposium industry discusses latest regulatory impacts, applications to reduce engine emissions, conserve energy, reduce noise, improve the cabin environment, increase overall vehicle performance passenger, commercial vehicle industry.
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