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Applied Vehicle Dynamics

Take notes! Take the wheel! There is no better place to gain an appreciation for vehicle dynamics than from the driver’s seat. Spend three, intense days with a world-renowned vehicle dynamics engineer and SAE Master Instructor, his team of experienced industry engineers, and the BMW-trained professional driving instructors. They will guide you as you work your way through 12 classroom modules learning how and why vehicles go, stop and turn. Each classroom module is immediately followed by an engaging driving exercise on BMW’s private test track.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of an auto-rickshaw frontal crash using FE simulation with validation using captured crash video from India

The three wheeled “Auto-Rickshaws” [Auto] plays a significant role in road transportation, especially in India. The crash safety and reconstruction studies have been widely used in four wheelers, whereas the availability of such data for Auto was found to be limited. In recent times, accident data processing from available videos is being utilised to observe the crash scenario, from which the crash parameters can be given as inputs to the crash analysis. This paper focusses on process the real-world accident data and study crash characteristics. With limitation in availability of detailed injuries post-crash, the study was restricted to reconstruction of crash kinematics and estimations of indicative injuries to driver. The source of video data is videos of crash available in public domains like YouTube. PYTHON video processing tool has been used to process the set of real-world accident video data.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Tubular Suspension Frame Design for Light Commercial Vehicle

Front suspension frame is an integral part of automobile chassis which acts as a major load carrying structural member and connects different suspension components with body. It provides the required stiffness for achieving desired vehicle dynamics performance. Acting as a major road load path from tire to body, it also acts as a mounting base for suspension arm, steering and compression rod. Considering the competitive market conditions, increased fuel efficiency demand along with enhanced structural durability, it is important to evaluate suspension frame for stiffness and durability using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) methodology so as to reduce product development time and First Time Right cost effective design. In this paper focus is given on CAE methodology used to design a light weight tubular kind of suspension frame for light commercial vehicle with stiffness comparable to conventional sheet metal suspension frame and similar durability performance with reduced weight.

Crane Boom Hoist Disengaging Device

This SAE Standard applies to cranes which are equipped to adjust the boom angle by hoisting and lowering means through rope reeving.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Hydrogen-Fueled Heavy-Duty Yard Truck for Roll-On and Roll-Off Port Operations

The port-logistic industry has a significant impact on the urban environment nearby ports and on the surrounding coastal areas. This is due to the use of large auxiliary power systems on ships operating during port stays, as well as to the employment of a number of fossil fuel powered road vehicles required for port operations. The environmental impact related to the use of these vehicles is twofold: on one hand, they contribute directly to port emissions by fuel consumption; on the other hand, they require some of the ship auxiliary systems to operate intensively, such as the ventilation system, which must operate to remove the pollutants produced by the vehicle engines inside the ship. The pathway to achieve decarbonization and mitigation of energy use in ports involves therefore the adoption of alternative and cleaner technology solutions for the propulsion systems of such port vehicles.
Technical Paper

Driveline Torsional Vibration Analysis and Clutch Damper Characteristics Optimization for reducing Commercial Vehicle Noise and Vibrations

The automotive world has seen an increase in customer demands for vehicles having low noise and vibrations. One of the most important source of noise and vibrations associated with vehicles is the vibration of driveline systems. For commercial vehicles, the refinement of drivelines from NVH point of view is complex due to the cost and efficiency constraints. The typical rear wheel drive configuration of commercial vehicles mostly amplifies the torsional vibrations produced by engine which results into higher noise in the vehicle operating speed range. Theoretically, there are various options available for fine tuning the torsional vibration performance of the vehicle drive train. The mass moments of inertia and stiffness of the drivetrain components play significant role in torsional vibration damping, however, except minor changes to flywheel mass, it is hardly possible to change other components, subject to design limitations.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0

Increased production rates and cost reduction are affecting manufacturing in all mobility industry sectors. One enabling methodology that could achieve these goals in the burgeoning “Industry 4.0” environment is the optimized deterministic assembly (DA) approach. It always forms the same final structure and has a strong link to design-for-assembly and design-for-automation. The entire supply chain is considered, with drastic savings at the final assembly line level through recurring costs and lead-time reduction. Unsettled Technology Areas in Deterministic Assembly Approaches for Industry 4.0 examines the evolution of previous assembly principles that lead up to and enable the DA approach, related simulation methodologies, and undefined and unsolved links between these domains. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio.

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2021

Accelerating truck autonomy Platform-agnostic interfaces, field data analytics and smart diagnostics will help the commercial-vehicle industry reach SAE Level 4 and 5 operations sooner. Upswing in outsourced EV testing As testing for electric commercial-vehicle propulsion systems surges, Drive System Design is rushing to expand its testing capabilities in the U.S. to keep up with the demand. Global emissions regs demand differing engine strategies The best choice in emissions-reducing technology varies for the U.S. versus Europe and elsewhere, a Jacobs expert details. Precision ag aids sustainability Deere expert Deanna Kovar, a 2021 SAE COMVEC keynoter, provides her thoughts on the future of autonomy, computer vision and machine learning, data management and more.

Wide Base Disc Wheels and Demountable Rims - Truck, Bus, and Trailer

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform engineering nomenclature for wide base disc wheels and demountable rims. This nomenclature and accompanying figures are intended to define fundamental wide base disc wheel and demountable rim terms. The dimensions given are those necessary to maintain serviceability and interchangeability of the wide base disc wheels and demountable rims with standard hardware. Valve clearances have not been included in this document.

Rope Drum Rotation Indicating Device

This SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice applies to cranes when used in lifting crane service which are equipped with rope drum rotation indicating devices.
Journal Article

Assessment of a Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Model in Crosswind Simulation of a Heavy Ground Vehicle

Abstract The present study assesses the use of a two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence model, which is a shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model, in two-way coupled aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics simulation of a heavy ground vehicle subjected to crosswind. The obtained results are compared with the corresponding results of the improved delayed detached-eddy simulation (IDDES) conducted at similar conditions from the previous literature. The aim is to evaluate the effects of different turbulence models used in aerodynamics simulations to resolve the vehicle dynamics results in two-way coupled simulations. The results present that the absolute relative percent differences between the lateral displacement, yaw angle and roll angle results of the SST k-ω and the IDDES simulations are less than 1%, 3%, and 10%, respectively.

Truck and Bus Coastdown Procedure

This document describes a rigorous engineering test procedure that utilizes industry-accepted data collection and statistical analysis methods to determine the road load and to estimate the aerodynamic drag area of trucks and buses weighing more than 10000 pounds. The test procedure may be conducted on a test track or on a public road under controlled conditions and supported by extensive data collection and data analysis constraints. The estimated aerodynamic-drag-area result represents a single-speed and single-yaw-angle condition. Test results that do not rigorously follow the method described herein shall not be represented as an SAE J2978 result.

Snowmobile Tail (Rear Position) Lamp

This SAE Standard provides test procedures, performance requirements, design guidelines, and installation guidelines for snowmobile tail (rear position) lamp.
Research Report

Unsettled Topics Concerning Flying Cars for Urban Air Mobility

Flying cars—as a new type of vehicle for urban air mobility (UAM)—have become an important development trend for the transborder integration of automotive and aeronautical technologies and industries. This article introduces the 100-year history of flying cars, examines the current research status for UAM air buses and air taxis, and discusses the future development trend of intelligent transportation and air-to-land amphibious vehicles. Unsettled Topics Concerning Flying Cars for Urban Air Mobility identifies the major bottlenecks and impediments confronting the development of flying cars, such as high power density electric propulsion, high lift-to-drag ratio and lightweight body structures, and low-altitude intelligent flight. Furthermore, it proposes three phased goals and visions for the development of flying cars in China, suggesting the development of a flying vehicle technology innovation system that integrates automotive and aeronautic industries.
Technical Paper

Human Subject Kinematic Response to Low-Speed Sideswipes Involving a Truck Tractor

The kinematic response of vehicle occupants involved in tractor-to-passenger vehicle sideswipes was examined through a series of 13 crash tests. Each test vehicle and its occupants were instrumented with accelerometer arrays to measure and quantify the impact severity at various inter-vehicular angles and impact velocities. The passenger vehicle was occupied by a volunteer test subject in the driver and right-front passenger positions. The impact angle was varied between 3° and 11° to produce a sideswipe collision between the front bumper, steered wheel, and side components of the tractor and the side panels of the struck vehicle. The passenger vehicles were struck at different locations along their longitudinal axis at impact velocities between 3 mph and 11.5 mph. Accelerations were measured at the lumbar, cervicothoracic, and head regions of the driver and right-front passenger of the struck vehicle and the tractor driver.