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Video

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Delay of Bio-Diesel and its Blends

2020-09-17
In this work, the ignitjion delay of bio-diesel and its blends with diesel at atmospheric pressure and temperature 8500C has been studied. The results are compared to those for diesel oil. Specifically, the suspended fuel droplet is inserted into a hot combustion chamber containing atmospheric air at temperatures which varied from 6250 - 8500C. The fuel droplet is suspended on the fine silica fibre wire of diameter 550 micron. It is mounted on rod and inserted in the hot combustion chamber at atmospheric condition. The ignition of the droplet is observed by optical circuit (optical sensor) and recorded by CRO. The ignition time is determined for calculating ignition delay. The results are plotted on the ignition delay ln(t) - 1/Temperature, K-1 coordinates to obtain the value of Activation Energy, EA. It has been found that the value of Activation Energy, EA is 44.3kJ for bio-diesel and 53.4kJ for diesel.
Video

Determination of Kinematic Parameters for the Combustion of Jatropha Based Bio-Diesel

2020-09-17
Laminar burning velocity is a fundamental measurement describing how a flame propagates into quiescent unburned mixture ahead of the flame at a specified pressure and temperature. Laminar burning velocity of bio-diesel air mixture has been studied in a spherical bomb, using the pressure - time records. Initial pressure, temperature is varied to cover a range from 1 bar - 4 bar and 443K-523K respectively. The range of measurements covered the equivalence ratio from 0.8 to 1.2. Pressure-time records have been used to calculate the flame velocity, burned gas fraction, flame position etc., using a simplified, two zone thermodynamic model, assuming equilibrium composition and homogenous mixture for the burned gases. It is also assumed frozen composition and isentropic compression for the unburned mixture.
Video

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Delay of Bio-Diesel and Its Blends

2020-09-15
In this work, the ignition delay of bio-diesel and its blends with diesel at atmospheric pressure and temperature 8500C has been studied. The results are compared to those for diesel oil. Specifically, the suspended fuel droplet is inserted into a hot combustion chamber containing atmospheric air at temperatures which varied from 6250 - 8500C. The fuel droplet is suspended on the fine silica fiber wire of diameter 550 micron. It is mounted on rod and inserted in the hot combustion chamber at atmospheric condition. The ignition of the droplet is observed by optical circuit (optical sensor) and recorded by CRO. The ignition time is determined for calculating ignition delay.The results are plotted on the ignition delay ln(t) - 1/Temperature, K-1 coordinates to obtain the value of Activation Energy, EA. It has been found that the value of Activation Energy, EA is 44.3kJ for bio-diesel and 53.4kJ for diesel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Ignition Delay of Bio-Diesel and Its Blends

2020-09-15
2020-01-2152
In this work, the ignitjion delay of bio-diesel and its blends with diesel at atmospheric pressure and temperature 8500C has been studied. The results are compared to those for diesel oil. Specifically, the suspended fuel droplet is inserted into a hot combustion chamber containing atmospheric air at temperatures which varied from 6250 - 8500C. The fuel droplet is suspended on the fine silica fibre wire of diameter 550 micron. It is mounted on rod and inserted in the hot combustion chamber at atmospheric condition. The ignition of the droplet is observed by optical circuit (optical sensor) and recorded by CRO. The ignition time is determined for calculating ignition delay. The results are plotted on the ignition delay ln(t) - 1/Temperature, K-1 coordinates to obtain the value of Activation Energy, EA. It has been found that the value of Activation Energy, EA is 44.3kJ for bio-diesel and 53.4kJ for diesel.
Standard

Air Dryer Test Procedure

2020-08-26
CURRENT
J2384_202008
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes uniform test procedures for desiccant air dryers used in vehicles with compressed air systems per SAE J2383. Continuous flow desiccant air dryers are excluded from the scope of this document.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigation of Exhaust Gas Bypass on Trolley Heating

2020-08-18
2020-28-0006
Most of the automobile and off-road vehicles leave the 100% exhaust gases to atmosphere. The temperature of the exhaust gas ranges from 350-400 deg C and the exit velocity of the gas is about 40-100 m/s based on the outlet pipe design. Dump trucks are used to transport mud, sticky waste garbage and sometime ice from one place to dump yard. The paper will describe the approach of partially use the exhaust gases for truck trolley by heating the trolley surfaces from the walls. CFD software is used to evaluate the exhaust system pressure drop and bypass exhaust flow rate requirements for effective heating on trolley wall. The simulation also helped to design the appropriate baffle position for optimum pressure drop and recirculation. Conjugate heat transfer CFD analysis is carried out to predict the flow & temperature behavior of the exhaust pipe.
Journal Article

The Effect of Engine Speed, Exhaust Gas Recirculation, and Compression Ratio on Isobaric Combustion

2020-08-14
Abstract The present study evaluates the effect of engine speed, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and compression ratio on conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and two isobaric combustion cases, by utilizing multiple injection strategies. The experiments were conducted in a Volvo D13C500 single-cylinder, heavy-duty engine, fuelled with standard European Union (EU) diesel fuel. The engine was operated at three different speeds of 1200, 1500, and 1800 revolutions per minute (rpm). For each engine speed and combustion cases, the EGR rate was varied from 0% to 40%. The low-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoL) and high-pressure isobaric combustion (IsoH) were maintained at peak cylinder pressure (PCP) of 50 and 68 bar, respectively, which was representative of the peak motoring pressure (PMP) and PCP of CDC. This was possible by adjusting the intake air pressure to 1.7 and 2.3 bar—absolute for IsoL and IsoH, respectively, at 1200 rpm.
Standard

Measurement of Exhaust Sound Levels of Stationary Snowmobiles

2020-08-10
WIP
J2567
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedure, environment and instrumentation for determining the sound levels of snowmobiles in the stationary test mode. This test method is intended to provide an accurate measurement of exhaust and other engine noise and may be used to evaluate new and in- use snowmobiles to determine compliance with noise control regulations. Sound level measurements obtained with this test method are not intended as an engineering determination of overall machine noise. For this purpose, the use of SAE J192 is recommended.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance of Different Metro Train Geometries through a Straight Tunnel Based on Steady and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modeling

2020-07-31
2020-01-5068
Numerical RANS modeling has been carried out to assess the aerodynamics of different metro train geometries through a straight tunnel. A steady-state approach was first used to choose the best geometry out of seven alternatives in terms of drag reduction when compared with a typical blunt face train design representative of European metro networks. The proposed models have different edge-rounding characteristics at the front and rear faces. Afterward, the baseline and optimized geometries are compared at different train velocities, and the flow structure surrounding the models is discussed using unsteady RANS results. The study focuses on skin and pressure drag coefficients for trains traveling at 40 km h−1 in a straight tunnel with a blockage ratio of 0.69. All the considered alternatives show a drag reduction between 5% and 20% relative to the baseline case.
Standard

Air Brake Valve - Performance Requirements

2020-05-13
WIP
J1410
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for new pneumatic valves when tested in accordance with the test procedure outlined in SAE J1409. The performance requirements will include: a. Input-output performance b. Leakage characteristics c. Low temperature performance d. Elevated temperature performance e. Corrosion resistance performance f. Endurance testing g. Structural integrity
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Automotive Vehicle Transient Aerodynamics with a Reduced-Scale Moving-Model Crosswind Facility

2020-04-14
2020-01-0671
Automotive vehicles operate in complex, transient aerodynamic conditions that can potentially influence their operational efficiency, performance and safety. A moving-model facility combined with a wind-tunnel is an experimental methodology that can be utilized to model some of these transient aerodynamic conditions. This experimental methodology is an alternative to wind-tunnel experiments with additional crosswind generators or actively yawing models, and has the added benefit of modelling the correct relative motion between the vehicle and the ground/infrastructure. Experiments using a VW Golf 7 were performed with a 1:10 scale model at the moving-model facility at DLR, Göttingen and a full-scale, operational vehicle at the BMW Ascheim side-wind facility.
Technical Paper

Fast and Accurate Prediction of Vehicle Aerodynamics Using ANSYS Mosaic Mesh

2020-03-27
2020-01-5011
ANSYS Mosaic™ meshing technology automatically conformally connects different types of meshing elements with general polyhedron elements. Poly-Hexcore, the first application of the Mosaic technology, fills the volume region with octree hexahedra, boundary layer with the high-quality layered poly-prism and conformally connect these two meshes with general polyhedron elements. A generic vehicle model - the DrivAer car, developed at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) in cooperation with the Audi AG and the BMW group, is used to validate the Mosaic meshing technology to predict complex aerodynamic phenomenon around the car. The Mosaic meshing technology is parallel scalable on high-performance computing (HPC) platform. For example, on ANSYS HPC (CPU: 2x Intel(R) Xeon(R) Gold 6142 CPU @ 2.60 GHz, RAM: 192 GB (6 GB/core)), approximately 63 million element mesh is 6.5 times faster, when scaled from serial compute core to 32 parallel compute cores.
Standard

Air Brake Actuator Test Performance Requirements - Truck and Bus

2020-02-10
CURRENT
J2318_202002
This procedure provides test performance requirements for service, spring applied parking, and double diaphragm combination air brake actuators with respect to durability, function, and environmental performance when tested in accordance to SAE J1469.
Technical Paper

Different approaches on how to improve braking performance in M3 vehicles to meet secondary brake requirements from ECE R13 regulation through low cost solutions

2020-01-13
2019-36-0011
The braking system of any road vehicle is subject to extensive legislative standards and requirements in many regions around the world. In buses, which belong to M3 category, one of the most critical demands is occupancy rate of passengers that leads to affect Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). More and more, customers are pushing the manufactures to increase the GVW of buses to allow more passengers inside and consequently increase profitability of the operation. By increasing GVW braking system has to present better performance to fulfill requirements. ECE R13 regulation establishes 2.5m/s2 as minimum Mean Fully Developed Deceleration (MFDD) and 64,4meters as maximum Stopping Distance (SD) acceptable to secondary brake performance. In a 4x2 vehicle with GVW of 19.5 tons fitted with disc brakes these requirements are actually fulfilled, but by adding 600 kg it became out of requirements.
Standard

Hydraulic Directional Control Valves, 3000 psi Maximum

2019-12-04
CURRENT
J748_201912
This SAE Recommended Practice has been set up by Subcommittee 4 of the Off-Road Machinery Technical Committee and is primarily for directional control valves on construction and industrial machinery equipment as referenced in SAE J1116. The purpose is to establish port area to flow relationship and match valve spool eye ends in relation to rated capacity. Port connections are optional for either the 4-bolt split flange connection or the internal straight thread "O" ring connection.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for Better Fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it does not only account for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, volumetric efficiency and thermal efficiency. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Standard

Tire Size Differential - Articulated Wheel Loader

2019-11-20
CURRENT
J2204_201911
This SAE Standard applies to the usage of tires of the same nominal size and tread type, but with different outside diameter for articulated front-end loaders. Articulated four-wheel-drive front-end loader performance and component life can be affected by excessive differences in the tire outside circumference and/or diameter. The purpose is to provide specific guidelines for the usage of tires with different outside circumference and/or diameter on articulated front-end loaders.
Standard

Hydraulic Motor Test Procedures

2019-11-20
CURRENT
J746_201911
This test code describes tests for determining characteristics of hydraulic positive displacement motors as used on off-road self-propelled work machines as referenced in SAE J1116.
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