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Technical Paper

Prediction of Tractor CG by Considering the Safety Devices at Concept Level

2020-09-25
2020-28-0476
Tractor weight transfer is the most common farm-related cause of fatalities nowadays. As in India it is getting mandatory for all safety devices across all HP ranges. Considering any changes in the weight from an attachment such as Rops, PTO device, tow hook and draw bar etc. can shift the center of gravity towards the weight. center of gravity is higher on a tractor because the tractor needs to be higher in order to complete operations over crops and rough terrain. Terrains, attachments, weights, and speeds can change the tractor’s resistance to turning over. This center of gravity placement disperses the weight so that 30 percent of the tractor’s weight is on the front axle and 70 percent is on the rear axle for two-wheel drive propelled tractors and it must remain within the tractor’s stability baseline for the tractor to remain in an upright position.
Standard

Overhead Protection for Agricultural Tractors - Test Procedures and Performance Requirements

2020-02-20
CURRENT
J167_202002
This SAE Standard applies to an overhead cover installed on a protective frame or enclosure conforming to SAE J2194 or alternately SAE J1194 and the following additional requirement of a drop test to verify the effectiveness of the overhead cover in protecting the operator from falling objects. The test procedures and performance requirements outlined in this document are based on currently available engineering data.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Content and Nature of the Dispersive Filler at the Formation of Coatings for Protection of the Equipment of River and Sea Transport

2020-01-23
Abstract To protect ship equipment of river and sea transport, it is suggested to use polymeric protective coatings based on epoxy diane oligomer ED-20, polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) curing agent and filler, which is a departure from industrial production. Thus the purpose of the work is analysis of major dependency of the properties on the content of fillers that allowed to revealed the critical filler content (furnace black) in composites to form a protective coating with the required set of characteristics. The infrared (IR) spectral analysis was used to investigate the presence of bonds on the surface of particles of the PM-75 furnace black, which allows us to assess the degree of cross-linking of the polymer. The influence of the content of dispersed furnace black on the physicomechanical and thermophysical properties and the structure of the protective coating is investigated.
Standard

Self-Propelled Sweepers and Scrubbers Braking Performance

2019-09-05
WIP
J1789
This SAE Standard applies to self-propelled, rider operated, sweepers and scrubbers as defined in SAE J2130 with maximum machine level surface speeds up to 32 km/h. Machines capable of speeds equal to and greater than 32 km/h are not covered by this document.
Standard

Personnel Protection - Skid Steer Loaders

2019-07-03
CURRENT
J1388_201907
This SAE Standard is intended to provide personnel protection guidelines for skid steer loaders. This document is intended as a guide towards standard practice, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. This document provides performance criteria for newly manufactured loaders and it is not intended for in-service machines.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Blast Protection Improvement of an Armored Vehicle Cab by Composite Armors and Anti-Shock Seats

2018-12-05
Abstract The objective of this article is to evaluate the effects of different blast protective modules to military vehicle structures and occupants. The dynamic responses of the V-shape integral basic armor, the add-on honeycomb sandwich structure module, and the anti-shock seat-dummy system were simulated and analyzed. The improvements of occupant survivability by different protective modules were compared using occupant injury criteria. The integral armored cab can maintain the integrity of the cab body structure. The add-on honeycomb sandwich armor reduces the peak structural deformation and velocity of the cab floor by 34.9% and 47.4%, respectively, compared with the cab with integral armors only. The integral armored cab with the anti-shock seat or the honeycomb sandwich structures reduces the occupant shock responses below the injury criteria. For different blast threat intensities, the selection of appropriate protective modules can meet protection requirements.
Standard

Operator Precautions

2018-09-11
CURRENT
J153_201809
These general operator precautions apply to off-road work machines as defined in SAE J1116, and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390, Nov 2004. These should not be considered as all-inclusive for all specific uses and unique features of each particular machine. Other more specific operator precautions not mentioned herein should be covered by users of this recommended practice for each particular machine application.
Standard

Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Guards for Excavators

2018-04-19
WIP
J1356
This SAE Recommended Practice applies only to excavators, as defined in SAE J/ISO 6165, working above ground, near an excavated or free standing bank or mine face which is higher than the top of the cab, or in demolition applications of free standing buildings or objects higher than the top of the cab. The evaluations are for resistance to penetration of guards to the point of infringement of the Deflection Limiting Volume (DLV, see SAE J397). The performance requirements of a representative specimen (that is, within the manufacturer's specifications), are based on the performance of proven structures under laboratory evaluation procedures. The areas protected include the top of the operator station (Top Guard), for protection from falling objects, and the front of the operator station (Front Guard), for protection from objects which approach the front of the cab.
Standard

Hazard Reduction for Horizontal Earthboring Machines

2017-01-18
CURRENT
J2305_201701
This SAE standard applies to horizontal earthboring machines (SAE J2022) of the following types: a Auger boring machines; b Rod pushers; c Rotary rod machines; d Impact machines. This document does not apply to specialized horizontal directional drills, mining machines, conveyors, tunnel boring machines, pipe jacking systems, micro tunnelers, or well drilling machines.
Standard

Overhead Protection for Agricultural Tractors - Test Procedures and Performance Requirements

2017-01-06
HISTORICAL
J167_201701
This SAE Standard applies to an overhead cover installed on a protective frame or enclosure conforming to SAE J2194 or alternately SAE J1194 and the following additional requirement of a drop test to verify the effectiveness of the overhead cover in protecting the operator from falling objects. The test procedures and performance requirements outlined in this document are based on currently available engineering data.
Standard

Roll-Over Protective Structures (ROPS) for Wheeled Agricultural Tractors

2016-11-28
CURRENT
J2194_201611
Any ROPS meeting the performance requirement of ISO 5700 (Static ROPS Test Standard) or ISO 3463 (Dynamic ROPS Test Standard) meets the performance requirements of this SAE Standard if the ROPS temperature/material and seat belt requirements of this document are also met.
Standard

Light Utility Vehicles

2016-11-18
CURRENT
J2258_201611
This SAE Standard defines requirements relating to the elements of design, operation, and maintenance of light utility vehicles. The safety specifications in this document apply to any self-propelled, operator-controlled, off-highway vehicle 1829 mm (72 in) or less in overall width, exclusive of added accessories and attachments, operable on three or more wheels or tracks, primarily intended to transport material loads or people, with a gross vehicle weight of 2500 kg (5500 lb) or less, and a maximum design speed less than or equal to 40.23 km/h (25 mph). This document is not intended to cover Go-Karts (ASTM F2007-07a), Fun-Karts (ASTM F2011-02e1), Dune Buggies, and all terrain vehicles (ATVs) complying with ANSI/SVIA 1.
Journal Article

Overhead Guard Physical Tests vs LS-DYNA FE Simulations

2016-09-16
2016-01-9017
The lifting and excavating industry are not as advanced as automotive in the use of modern CAE tools in the early stages of design and development of heavy machinery. There is still a lack of confidence in the integrity of the results from FE simulations and optimisation and this becomes a barrier to the adoption of virtual prototyping for vehicle verification. R&D of Tata Steel has performed tests on two forklift truck overhead guards supplied by a major manufacturer. Based on the international standard for Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS) as an initial input to the method of testing, the main aim of this study was to generate as much test data as possible to correlate the Finite Element (FE) simulations of two tests - a static and a dynamic test. The static test was developed to deform the overhead guard plastically in a slow controlled manner, so it would be easier to correlate the measured data to FE simulation.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Single Seat, Four Wheeled All-Terrain Vehicle for Baja Collegiate Design Series

2015-09-29
2015-01-2863
There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
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