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Journal Article

Design of a 1.2 kW Interleaved Synchronous Buck Converter for Retrofit Applications in Aviation Systems

2020-10-19
Abstract Presently, 270 V direct current (DC) systems replace older 28 V DC voltage systems in both the civil and military aviation industry due to the requirement for more electrical power needs on board. Therefore, the existing avionics require retrofitting. The conversion from 270 V to 28 V appears to be quite promising for both old and new systems. This study aims to design an interleaved synchronous modular buck converter topology as a candidate for these requirements. Calculations for the converter design are conducted considering aviation standards. Switching with pulse-width modulation (PWM) is used to control the power converter. A double-loop feedback control system based on voltage and current feedback is designed. Therefore, the buck converter circuit with 1145 W power output is proposed, which supplies a 28 V and 41 A DC output from a 270 V DC input. The concept is verified using simulations and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experimental results.
Video

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-10-02
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Technical Paper

Methodology and Results of Testing an Impact of F-34 Fuel on the Engine Reliability

2020-09-15
2020-01-2133
An application of the new kind of the fuel for the diesel engine requires to conduct the qualification tests of the engines powered by this his fuel which allow assessing an impact of fuel on the engine reliability. Such a qualification test of the piston and turbine engines of the aircraft stationed on the ground and land vehicles is described in the NATO standardisation agreement (STANAG) 4195 as the AEP-5 test. The methodology and selected results of the qualification tests of the SW-680 turbocharged multi-purpose diesel engine fuelled with F-34 fuel have been presented in this paper. A dynamometric stand with the SW-680 engine has been described. Based on the preliminary results of the investigation it has been found that a change in a type of the fuel from IZ-40 diesel fuel into F-34 kerosene-type one has reduced a maximum engine torque by about 4%. This has been primarily due to a lower fuel density of F-34 by about 3%.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Evaluation of Performance, Combustion and Particle Emissions of Diesel and Gasoline in a Military Heavy Duty 720 kW CIDI Engine Applying EGR

2020-09-15
2020-01-2057
Investigating the impact of Gasoline fuel on diesel engine performance and emission is very important for military heavy- duty combat vehicles. Gasoline has great potential as alternative fuel due to rapid depletion of petroleum reserves and stringent emission legislations, under multi fuel strategy program for military heavy- duty combat vehicle. There is a known torque, horsepower and fuel economy penalty associated with the operation of a diesel engine with Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, experimental studies have suggested that Gasoline fuel has the potential for lowering exhaust emissions, especially NOx, CO, CO2, HC and particulate matter as compared to diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict the total number of nano particles emitted in addition to particulate matter, which has adverse health impact.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: February 2020

2020-01-30
Rad-Hard Microelectronics for Space Applications Outsourcing Plasma Treatments for Surface Modification Adding Context to Full-Motion Video for Improved Surveillance and Situational Awareness Implementing an Aerospace Factory of the Future 90° Hybrid Coupled Power Amplifier - Pros and Cons A New Network Design for the "Internet from Space" Future Advances in Electronic Materials and Processes - Flexible Hybrid Electronics Despite progress being made, there are still significant obstacles to the manufacture and use of flexi-ble hybrid electronics in military applications. Heterogeneous Integration Technology Integrating different types of devices and materials could increase their functional density, improving the performance of electro-optic systems for sensor applications. The Impact of Cyber Cameras on the Intelligence Community The ability to covertly access and manipulate cyber cameras could provide valuable strategic data for the US intelligence community.
Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

2019-10-01
Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Vehicles A "STEP" Forward for Product Lifecycle Management The Challenge of Replacing Hard Chrome Defining an Open System Architecture Standard for Defense Systems Solid-State Microwave Power Module Defeating Commercial Drone Threats with Open-Source SDR Influence of Leading-Edge Oscillatory Blowing on Time-Accurate Dynamic Store Separation Developing an understanding of, and potentially controlling, pitch bifurcation of a store release from an aircraft during flight could improve weapons delivery. Green's Function Extraction from Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Understanding what affects acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere is important for a variety of military applications including the development of new remote sensing techniques.
Standard

Perspectives on Integrating Structural Health Monitoring Systems into Fixed-Wing Military Aircraft

2019-09-18
CURRENT
AIR6245
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is prepared for stakeholders seeking information about the evolution, integration, and approval of SHM technologies for military aircraft systems. The report provides this information in the form of (a) two military organizations’ perspectives on requirements, and (b) general SHM challenges and industry perspectives. The report only provides information to generate awareness of perspectives for military aircraft and, hence, assists those who are involved in developing SHM systems understanding the broad range of regulations, requirements, and standards published by military organizations that are available in the public domain from the military organizations.
Standard

Fuze Well Mechanical Interface

2019-09-03
CURRENT
AS5680B
This interface standard applies to fuzes used in airborne weapons that use a 3-in fuze well. It defines: Physical envelope of the fuze well at the interface with the fuze. Load bearing surfaces of the fuze well. Physical envelope of the fuze and its connector. Mechanical features (e.g., clocking feature). Connector type, size, location and orientation. Retaining ring and its mechanical features (e.g., thread, tool interface). Physical envelope of the retaining ring at the interface with the fuze. Physical space available for installation tools. Torque that the installation tool shall be capable of providing. This standard does not address: Materials used or their properties. Protective finish. Physical environment of the weapon. Explosive interface or features (e.g., insensitive munitions (IM) mitigation). Charging tube. Torque on the retaining ring or loads on the load bearing surfaces.
Standard

IEEE-1394b for Military and Aerospace Vehicles - Applications Handbook

2019-08-12
CURRENT
AIR5654A
This Handbook is intended to accompany or incorporate AS5643, AS5643/1, AS5657, AS5706, and ARD5708. In addition, full understanding of this Handbook also requires knowledge of IEEE-1394-1995, IEEE-1394a, and IEEE-1394b standards. This Handbook contains detailed explanations and architecture analysis on AS5643, bus timing and scheduling considerations, system redundancy design considerations, suggestions on AS5643-based system configurations, cable selection guidance, and lessons learned on failure modes.
Journal Article

Combined Battery Design Optimization and Energy Management of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

2018-10-31
Abstract This article investigates the fuel savings potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the lithium-ion battery pack in the hybrid configuration. The powertrain supervisory control optimization determines the most efficient way to split the power demand between the battery pack and the engine. Despite the available design and control optimization techniques, a generalized mathematical formulation and solution approach for combined design and control optimization is still missing in the literature. This article intends to fill that void by proposing a unified framework to simultaneously optimize both the battery pack size and power split control sequence. This is achieved through a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) where the design parameters are integrated into the Hamiltonian function.
Technical Paper

Multi-Layer Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous System-of-Systems Composed of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles

2018-10-30
2018-01-1964
The advancement of both sensory and unmanned technology, combined with increased utilization of autonomous platforms in complex teaming scenarios, has created a need for practical design space exploration tools to aid in the synthesis of effective System-of-Systems (SoS). The presented work describes a modular, flexible, and extensible framework, referred to herein as the Technologies and Teaming Evaluation (TATE) framework, for straightforward identification of high-quality SoS, which may include both manned and autonomous elements, through quantitative evaluation of system-level and SoS-level attributes against a set of user-defined reference tasks.
Magazine

Tech Briefs: August 2018

2018-08-01
Designing a High-Speed Decoy Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Using Thermoplastics in Aerospace Applications In-Flight Real-Time Avionics Adaptation Using Turbine Flow Meters for Aerospace Test and Measurement Applications Communicating from Space: The Front End of Multiscale Modeling Laser-Based System Could Expand Space-to-Ground Communication Hydraulic Testing of Polymer Matrix Composite 102mm Tube Section Research could lead to development of a composite material that can be processed at a low temperature and still be used at 1000°F. Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials Study attempts to determine if polypropylene nanofiber materials can be used in air filtration systems to remove toxic vapors. Inter-Laboratory Combat Helmet Blunt Impact Test Method Comparison Ensuring consistent test methods could reduce the risk of head injuries.
Magazine

Tech Briefs: May 2018

2018-05-01
New Technologies Tackle UAV Challenges Robotic Applique Kits Leverage Existing Assets Educating UGVs Implementing AI Advancements in Thermal Image Training Data Sets Protecting Critical Data on Unmanned Underwater Platforms Advancements Made to the Wingman Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) Simulation: How to Operate the SIL New features include the creation of virtual environments that match real-world gunnery test courses. Soldier-Robot Team Communication: An Investigation of Exogenous Orienting Visual Display Cues and Robot Reporting Preferences The effective use of robots to conduct dangerous missions depends on accurate man-machine communications. Soft Robotic Fish Swims Alongside Real Ones in Coral Reefs GPS Enabled Semi-Autonomous Robot Combining GPS signals with acoustic and encoder data gives a robot the ability to determine its location and orientation within a reference frame.
Book

The Standard of Knowledge for the Aviation, Space & Defense Industry Quality Practitioner

2012-01-01
This book provides a detailed description of the process-based body of knowledge (BoK) development methodology, and the expanded Quality BoK for the AS&D industry based on the work processes of the industry. The Standard of Knowledge for the Aviation, Space & Defense Industry Quality Practitioner: The AS&D Quality Body of Knowledge (BoK) Version 1 is based on applied research and peer-review validation of the actual quality-related business processes in the AS&D industry, this BoK provided the basis for ADLI professional certification of quality professionals. Essential to quality professionals, this new publication contains comprehensive business process knowledge, along with illustrations and tables to reinforce subjects.
Technical Paper

Guiding Framework for Feasibility Evaluation of Localised Production and Drop in Blending of Aviation Turbine Fuel with Bio Derivatives for Non-civilian Air Bases

2011-10-18
2011-01-2792
The potential for small scale local production of Bio fuel derivatives and their partial blending with aviation turbine fuel in non-civilian bases has been investigated. A feasibility study on technical readiness levels for process viability is presented in the paper. Demand side analysis for various blend mixes and corresponding requirement for production facilities and land area requirements are performed. Sustainable production and blending operations are the basis for selection of key performance indicators for the air base. Guiding framework and readiness evaluation processes are delineated for the base. Qualitative inference is combined with quantitative scoring system within the framework.
Technical Paper

Experimental Stress/Strain Analysis of a Standardized Sensor Platform for a C-130 Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3426
Project Oculus is an in-flight deployable mechanical arm/pod system that will accommodate 500 pounds of sensor payload, developed for a C-130 military aircraft. The system is designed for use in counter narco-terrorism and surveillance applications by the Department of Defense and the National Guard [1]. A prototype of the system has been built and is in the testing/analysis phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual stresses and strains in the critical areas found using previous Finite Element (FE) simulations and to ensure that acceptable safety requirements have been met. The system components tested will be redesigned, tested, and reconstructed in the case of unacceptable safety factors or if more reliable methods can be implemented. The system was built to be deployed and retracted in flight, to avoid causing any problems in take off and landing.
Technical Paper

A Military Space Plane Candidate

1997-10-01
975630
This paper presents a Military Space Plane design concept. While the current military space plane activity is focused on rocket-powered concepts, the concept presented here is powered by a rocket-based combined cycle engine that uses both rocket and air-breathing engine cycles. The design concept is the reference SSTO design concept used in the NASA HRST ANSER study. The reference concept is a derivative of the NASA air-breathing Access to Space study SSTO design concept. The Access to Space air-breathing vehicle's combined cycle engine was replaced by the Aerojet rocket-based combined cycle engine. The orbital performance capability of the reference design concept is presented for 100 n mi., polar, and 225 n mi., 51 deg. orbits. The sensitivity of GTOW to payload and margin is also presented.
Technical Paper

Challenging Power Density Requirements for Future Fighter APUs

1991-09-01
912177
Future fighters will require more compact, lighter weight, small gas turbine auxiliary power units (APUs) capable of faster starting, and operation, up to altitudes of 50,000 ft. The US Air Force is currently supporting an Advanced Components Auxiliary Power Unit (ACAPU) research program to demonstrate the technologies that will be required to accomplish projected secondary power requirements for these advanced fighters. The requirements of the ACAPU Program represent a challenging task requiring significant technical advancements over the current state-of-the-art, prominent among which are: Small high heat release high altitude airbreathing combustors. High temperature monolithic ceramic and metallic small turbines. Capability to operate, and transition from non-airbreathing to airbreathing modes. This paper discusses these challenging requirements and establishes technology paths to match and exceed the required goals.
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