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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

2018-11-12
2018-22-0014
During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent.
Technical Paper

Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin Oblique Vertical Testing

2018-11-12
SC18-22-0008
Abstract - The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) was developed to assess injury in Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFTE) and laboratory development tests of vehicles and vehicle technologies subjected to underbody blast (UBB) loading. While UBB events impart primarily vertical loading, the occupant location in the vehicle relative to the blast can result in some inherent non-vertical, or off-axis loading. In this study, the WIAMan Technology Demonstrator (TD) was subjected to 18 tests with a 350g, 5-ms time duration drop tower pulse using an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) energy attenuating seat in four conditions: purely vertical, 15° forward tilt, 15° rearward tilt, and 15° lateral tilt to simulate the partly off-axis loading of an UBB event. The WIAMan TD showed no signs of damage upon inspection. Time history data indicates the magnitude, curve shape, and timing of the response data were sensitive to the off-axis loading in the lower extremity, pelvis, and spine.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Occupant Restraint Systems for Tactical Vehicles in Frontal Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0621
The objective of this study was to optimize the occupant restraint systems for a light tactical vehicle in frontal crashes. A combination of sled testing and computational modeling were performed to find the optimal seatbelt and airbag designs for protecting occupants represented by three size of ATDs and two military gear configurations. This study started with 20 sled frontal crash tests to setup the baseline performance of existing seatbelts, which have been presented previously; followed by parametric computational simulations to find the best combinations of seatbelt and airbag designs for different sizes of ATDs and military gear configurations involving both driver and passengers. Then 12 sled tests were conducted with the simulation-recommended restraint designs. The test results were further used to validate the models. Another series of computational simulations and 4 sled tests were performed to fine-tune the optimal restraint design solutions.
Magazine

Tech Briefs: April 2018

2018-04-01
Laser Detecting Systems Enhancing Survivability and Lethality on the Battlefield Designing With Plastics for Military Equipment Engine Air-Brakes Paving the Way to Quieter Aircraft Nett Warrior Enhancing Battlefield Connectivity and Communications XPONENTIAL 2018 - An AUVSI Experience Communications in Space: A Deep Subject First Air-Worthy Metal-Printed RF Filter Ready for Takeoff Validation of Automated Prediction of Blood Product Needs Algorithm Processing Continuous Non-Invasive Vital Signs Streams (ONPOINT4) Using a combination of non-invasive sensors, advanced algorithms, and instruments built for combat medics could reduce hemorrhaging and improve survival rates. Calculation of Weapon Platform Attitude and Cant Using Available Sensor Feedback Successful development of mobile weapon systems must incorporate operation on sloped terrain.
Technical Paper

Human Foot-Ankle Injuries and Associated Risk Curves from Under Body Blast Loading Conditions

2017-11-13
2017-22-0006
Under body blast (UBB) loading to military transport vehicles is known to cause foot-ankle fractures to occupants due to energy transfer from the vehicle floor to the feet of the soldier. The soldier posture, the proximity of the event with respect to the soldier, the personal protective equipment (PPE) and age/sex of the soldier are some variables that can influence injury severity and injury patterns. Recently conducted experiments to simulate the loading environment to the human foot/ankle in UBB events (~5ms rise time) with variables such as posture, age and PPE were used for the current study. The objective of this study was to determine statistically if these variables affected the primary injury predictors, and develop injury risk curves. Fifty below-knee post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) legs were used for statistical analysis. Injuries to specimens involved isolated and multiple fractures of varying severity.
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