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Technical Paper

Application controlled secure dynamic firewall for automotive digital cockpit

2021-04-06
2021-01-0140
Automotive digital cockpit is growing multi-dimensionally through multiple numbers of applications for driver assistance and user activities. The exponential growth of diverse applications provides global connectivity to the vehicles, but it equally provides a passage for the global security threats to reach the automotive surface by increasing the attack surfaces on the vehicles. The controlled interaction of the vehicular applications with the external digital world protects vehicular confidentiality and integrity, where the violation of which affects the automotive safety and security. The controlled interaction of the applications is achieved through a firewall system either to pass or block traffic through the networking interface. The opening and closing of ports using static and dynamic firewall suffer from their own shortcomings, where those instances provide open ports for the attackers to launch the attacks by accessing the ports.
Technical Paper

Multiple Metamodeling Approaches for Improved Design Space Mapping

2021-04-06
2021-01-0840
The complexities involved in an optimization problem at a system level require accessing different approaches and tune these approaches to the problem that needs to be addressed. One approach that is commonly used is the metamodel based design optimization ,which creates an accurate metamodel to replace the simulation model by covering the design space with a Design of Experiments (DOE). Optimization is performed based on this metamodel. This metamodel approach has been proven effective and accurate in providing the global optimum. Depending upon the setup in an organization, the metamodel based optimization could be much faster way of achieving the optimized solution. However, the accuracy of the optimization is highly dependent on the quality of metamodel generated. The quality of a metamodel depends on the space-filling properties of the DOE, the better the space-filling properties the better the accuracy of the metamodel.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Tapered Metering Pin in a Landing Gear Shock Absorber

2021-03-02
2021-01-0020
Landing gear is one of the fundamental parts of an airplane. Most modern aircraft uses oleo-pneumatic shock struts in the landing gears. In this study, a landing gear was modelled as a mass-spring-damper system. Components of landing gear including oleo-pneumatic shock strut, wheel and tire were included in the model. Additionally, shock strut was modelled with a tapered metering pin to vary the area of the orifice through which hydraulic oil passes as the landing impact force start acting. Tip and hub outer diameters of the metering pin were considered two variables. Vertical acceleration (indicating landing impact force or g-force) and shock absorber displacement were calculated as resultant parameters. Both of these output parameters are inversely proportional to each other and are needed to be minimized individually. Therefore a composite objective function was established to include and optimize those two output parameters with equal weight and simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Development of a non-parametric robot calibration method to improve drilling accuracy

2021-03-02
2021-01-0003
The drilling of large quantities of repetitive holes during the manufacture of large aerospace components is often considered a key limiting factor, with regards to production efficiency. Whilst the desire within aerospace is to use relatively cheap six axis robot arms with drilling end effector units, their poor accuracy remains an obstacle. Robot calibration presents a way of improving robot accuracy such that aerospace drilling tolerances can be met, without permanently committing metrology equipment to an automation cell during production. Extensive research has been conducted into robot calibration by correcting the kinematic model, known as parametric calibration. This method is highly complex, and calibrates the robot across the entire working volume. This is often not required in industrial drilling applications, as drilling routines are often contained within a smaller volume of the robot reach. In this paper, a non-parametric method of robot calibration is proposed.
Technical Paper

Generalizing Aspects of System Safety to Broaden Applicability

2021-03-02
2021-01-0037
The Safety Assessment Process, defined by SAE ARP4761, is described in the context of conventional aircraft development and certification. While it has been used for decades to evaluate airplanes and rotorcraft, the evolution of newer technology challenges this context. As entrants venture into aviation, they bring perspectives, which may not clearly align. For those skilled in the art of aviation safety assessment, the approach to new technologies might appear straight forward. Such an individual might easily perceive the accommodations for unconventional applications. Once accommodations are made, and failure conditions are established, the rest of the process is somewhat mechanical –they flow out of these conditions. However, the context of experience betrays the reality of the process description in the ARP. Such accommodations are not discussed in it, and the process objectives, which are fulfilled by its explanations, are not explicit.
Technical Paper

Digital Thread And The Impact on Weapon System Acquisition Cost Growth

2021-03-02
2021-01-0026
The traditional acquisition and development cycles of a weapon system by government agencies goes through multiple stages throughout the life cycle of the product. Over the last few decades, many of the United States military programs had experienced acquisition cost growth. Many studies by the Department of Defense indicates that the cost growth is a result of multiple factors including the development and manufacturing stages of the product. Organizations with multiple operation sites that goes across multiple states or even countries and continents are finding it increasingly difficult to share product technical and financial databases to ensure the corporate synergy between multiple sites or divisions. For such organizations, there exist the need to synchronize the operations and have standard and common database where everything is stored and equally accessed by different sites.
Technical Paper

Application of metrology, statistics, root cause analysis, and cost of quality to enable quality improvements and implementation of statical process control for acceptance of large complex assemblies

2021-03-02
2021-01-0025
For new aircraft production, initial production typically reveals difficulty in achieving some assembly level tolerances which in turn lead to non-conformances at integration. With design, tooling, build plans, automation, and contracts with suppliers and partners being complete, the need arises to resolve these integration issues quickly and with minimum impact to production and cost targets. While root cause corrective action (RCCA) is a very well know process, this paper will examine some of the unique requirements and innovative solutions when addressing variation on large assemblies manufactured at various suppliers. Specifically, this paper will review a completed 787 project to improve fuselage circumferential and seat track joins and an existing six sigma project on the 777x fixed leading edge in support of wing integration.
Standard

Identification Marking Methods

2021-01-21
CURRENT
AS478R
This standard provides the following: a Definition of terms pertaining to marking. b Symbols for marking location. c Requirements and restrictions for permanent markings. d Types of marking methods. e Rules for designating marking methods. f Table listing marking methods.
Standard

Aircraft Oxygen Replenishment Coupling for Civil Transport Aircraft (Design Standard)

2021-01-19
WIP
AS1219B
This SAE Aerospace Design Standard defines a coupling, which is installed in a high pressure (1850 to 2000 psig) oxygen system of a civil transport aircraft for the purpose of mating to ground oxygen replenishment facilities. Dimensions developed from AND10089, Detail Specification Sheet for Fitting End, Design Standard, For Cone Connection.
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