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Critical Concepts of Tolerance Stacks 2009 3-day

This course, based on the ASME Y14.5-2009 standard, provides an in-depth explanation of how to use tolerance stacks to analyze product designs and how to use geometric tolerances in stacks. You will learn the essential methods and concepts used for creating 1D part and assembly tolerance stacks.
Technical Paper

Study on the Influence of Air Suspension Levelling Valve Charging and Discharging Characteristics on Heavy Truck Roll Stability

Roll stability is an important attribute which must be accounted for heavy trucks.In order to analyze the anti-roll performance of the suspension in the early period of development, engineers will generally use Multi Body Dynamics(MBD) simulation software which can save time in product development cycle.However, air suspension employs levelling valves in order to adjust the height by charging and discharging the air springs. The air spring is simplified as a closed container in the simulation, the stiffness change of the air spring caused by the levelling valve is not considered.In this paper, a air suspension with levelling valves model integrated into the mutibody dynamic model of a 6×4 heavy truck is built through a co-simulation technique to investigate the influence of three types of levelling valves arrangement on the roll performance of the suspension under two typical conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Commercial Vehicles

Recent advancements in internal combustion engine due to stricter emission regulations require the turbocharger to function with a higher efficiency over the entire operating range. Furthermore, the need for higher boosting pressure requires the extension of rotation speed margin forcing the inclusion of resonance speeds for high order vibration modes, posing a threat on the reliability of the turbine. This paper introduces new variable geometry nozzle vanes and turbine rotor designed on the basis of understanding and control of tip leakage flows, utilizing both low and high fidelity CFD simulations. The new vane design is comprised of a three dimensional stacking in the span wise direction which has been found effective in reducing the nozzle tip leakage loss. Also, this shape ensures the weakening of nozzle wake effect on the rotor as the distance between nozzle trailing edge and rotor leading edge is increased, mainly from mid span to tip.
Technical Paper

Design Analysis And Architecture Of Ethernet Switch For Automotive Using AUTOSAR

The advancement in technology has led to the growing demand for data bandwidth, the traditional CAN protocol is slowly getting replaced by the Ethernet protocol as it suffices the need for the growing demand for bandwidth. A good network design for an ethernet network in automotive is the need of the hour. There are different network design topologies existing, bus topology, and star topology. Based on the need for the network design the topology is being selected. To form a star topology network an Ethernet switch architecture is to be utilized. The Switched Ethernet network design is being widely accepted and used in automotive and industrial applications. This paper discusses the different hardware variants, star topology, which is to be formed by an ethernet switch, its advantages, and use cases, a configuration in AUTOSAR. The paper also proposes the design, architecture of the Ethernet switch and share the analysis of the ethernet switch results in this paper.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Relative Performance of Vaned and Vaneless Mixed Flow Turbines for Medium and Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Applications With Pulse Exhaust Systems

This paper details results of a numerical and experimental investigation into the relative performance of vaned and vaneless mixed flow turbines for application to medium and heavy-duty diesel engines utilizing pulse exhaust systems. Previous investigations into the impact of nozzle vanes on turbine performance considered only open turbine housings, whereas a majority of medium and heavy-duty diesel engine applications are six-cylinder engines using pulse exhaust systems with divided turbines. The two turbine stages for this investigation were carefully designed to meet the constraints of a 7L engine pulse exhaust system and to control confounding factors that would undermine the vaned vs vaneless performance comparison. Detailed CFD analysis and turbine dynamometer test results confirm a significant efficiency advantage for the vaned turbine stage under both full and partial admission conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Autonomous Vehicles on Short and Medium Distance Mode Choice for Intercity Travel

In order to study the influence of autonomous vehicles on short and medium distance mode choice for intercity travel, this paper incorporates the latent psychological variables that affect the choice behavior of autonomous vehicles into the latent class conditional logit model and establishes a hybrid choice model to conduct the empirical research based on the theory of planned behavior. The results show that compared with the traditional multinomial logit model, the latent class conditional logit model has higher fitting goodness. Travelers can be divided into three subgroups: class1, class2, and class 3, accounting for 40.7%, 24.4%, and 34.9%, respectively. At a 5% confidence level, gender, education, occupation, monthly household income, children, and IC card significantly affect the sample’s latent class.

Air Brake Valve - Performance Requirements

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for new pneumatic valves when tested in accordance with the test procedure outlined in SAE J1409. The performance requirements will include: a Input-output performance b Leakage characteristics c Low temperature performance d Elevated temperature performance e Corrosion resistance performance f Endurance testing g Structural integrity

Upper Coupler Kingpin - Commercial Trailers and Semitrailers

This SAE Standard applies to upper coupler kingpins for commercial trailers and semitrailers in the unladen condition. See Figure 1. A 90 degree ± 1 degree angle extends (in all directions) from the centerline of the kingpin to the upper coupler plate surface within a 48.26 cm (19 inch) radius. The upper coupler plate surface should not bow downward (convex) more than 0.635 cm (1/4 inch) within a 48.26 cm (19 inch) radius or more than 0.3175 cm (1/8 inch) at a radius of 25.4 cm (10 inches) from the kingpin. The upper coupler plate surface should not bow upward (concave) more than 0.15875 cm (1/16 inch) within a 48.26 cm (19 inch) radius. (See Figure 2.)

Dimensional Compatibility for Commercial Vehicles Fitment of Complete Wheels in Drum Brake Applications - Truck and Bus

This SAE Recommended Practice defines a clearance line for establishing dimensional compatibility between drum brakes and wheels with 19.5 inch, 22.5 inch, and 24.5 inch diameter rims. Wheels designed for use with drum brakes may not be suitable for disc brake applications. The lines provided establish the maximum envelope for brakes, including all clearances, and minimum envelope for complete wheels to allow for interchangeability. This document addresses the dimensional characteristics only, and makes no reference to the performance, operational dynamic deflections, or heat dissipation of the system. Valve clearances have not been included in the fitment lines. Bent valves may be required to clear brake drums. Disc brake applications may require additional running clearances beyond those provided by the minimum contour lines. Mounting systems as noted are referenced in SAE J694.

Nomenclature - Industrial and Agricultural Mowers

Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing industrial or agricultural machines, or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been picked to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard.
Technical Paper

Experimental Rattle Source Characterisation Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

Minimizing rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the internal combustion engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible.
Research Report

Unsettled Technology Domains for Rapid and Automated Verification of Industry 4.0 Machine Tools

Currently, inaccuracies in machine tools are often not detected until after they have produced nonconforming parts, causing reworking or scrap—which, for high-value aerospace parts—means significant lost costs. Additionally, low-value parts are often inspected less frequently, allowing many nonconforming parts to be produced before the issue is detected. The alternative to relying on part inspection is to run frequent tests on the manufacturing equipment itself, but established calibration and health-check processes can be lengthy. While costly, emerging rapid and automated verification (RAV) processes enable machine tools to check their performance automatically in just a few minutes throughout the day, allowing machines to operate without human intervention for long periods of time. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report discusses the challenges and advantages of several key RAV solutions, from cost-effective artifact probing, to inertial measurement, and noncontact triple-probing.
Technical Paper

Innovative Setting Bracket Design to Improve the Tractor Fit and Finish between the Bonnet and Custer Panel (Scuttle)

Innovative setting bracket design to improve the tractor Fit and Finish between the Bonnet and Custer panel (Scuttle) The paper presents an integrated approach for arriving a process to assemble scuttle regarding bonnet to achieve Gap and flushness aesthetic requirement. Variation is inevitable due to fitting of bonnet on Tractor front semi-chassis, scuttle fitting on tractor middle clutch housing and assembling many parts with different tolerances, hence the deviation (stack-up) obtained after their assembly varies from approximately -10.175 to 9.775 mm. This is quite large and gives a huge impact in aesthetic point of view. To overcome this issue, we introduced one Innovative intermediate bracket as the setting gauge which is assembled with reference to bonnet and scuttle is mounted on this setting bracket hence zero flushness and uniform achieved between bonnet and scuttle.
Technical Paper

Design & Development of Metal Matrix Based Mounting Bracket for Commercial Vehicle Application

Automakers are being subjected to increasingly strict fuel economy requirements which led OEMs to focus more on Light weighting and Energy efficiency areas. Considering the aforesaid challenges, efforts have been taken in Light weighting of mounting bracket for Engine application. This paper deals with conversion of Engine accessory bracket from Aluminum material to Metal Matrix composite (MMC). In Design phase, existing bracket has been studied for its structural requirements and further Bracket is designed to meet MMC process requirement and CAE carried out for topology optimization and Structural integrity. Finally observations and results were compared for Existing design and Proposed design and further optimization proposed.
Technical Paper

Durability Tests of Gaskets in Biofuels Environment

The production of biofuels to means of transport allows the additional development and the full maintenance of the agricultural sector. The biofuel of II generation may be produced with usage of waste fats and oils. That biofuel is total renewable source of energy. The properties of tested new biofuels were described. Their influence on pipes and especially gaskets and gasket materials during durability tests was determined. Gasket materials were tested in accordance with DIN 28090-3: 2014-11 and DIN28091-2. During 1000 hours of tests at 353 K, the weight loss of the biofuel and the change in elongation (tensile stress) of the flange bolts were measured. Fuel leakage rate was calculated. The gaskets were checked and no delamination was observed. The value of volatile biofuels emission after 1000 hours of testing was less than allowed in DIN Standard. Fuel leakage rate was also lower too.