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Technical Paper

Experimental Rattle Source Characterisation Using Matrix Inversion on a Reception Plate

2020-09-30
2020-01-1541
Minimizing rattle noises is becoming increasingly important for hybrid and electrical vehicles as masking from the internal combustion engine is missing and in view of the functional requirements of the office-like interiors of next generation automated vehicles. Rattle shall therefore be considered in the design phase of component systems. One hurdle is the modelling of the excitation mechanisms and its experimental validation. In this work we focus on excitation by loose parts having functional clearances such as gear systems or ball sensors in safety belt retractors. These parts are excited by relatively large low frequency displacements such as road-induced movements of the car body or low order rigid body engine vibrations generating multiple impacts with broad band frequency content. Direct measurement of the impact forces is in many cases not possible.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Capable Wind and Rolling Noise Synthesis for a More Realistic Vehicle Simulator Experience

2020-09-30
2020-01-1546
Nowadays a large proportion of the overall acoustic vehicle development takes place within virtual phases. Increasingly, projects require the auralization of virtually developed acoustics measures, e.g. from the disciplines of electro-acoustic, ride comfort, rolling noise or passive acoustic on dynamic or static driving simulators. In practice, it turns out that in addition to engine noise also a realistic reproduction of rolling and wind noise is important. In this article, approaches to synthetic rolling and wind noise generators are discussed. We developed such real-time capable sound generators that are parametrizable according to arbitrary driving conditions. Furthermore, spatial reproduction of the driving sounds is achieved for binaural headphones, as well as for other arbitrary loudspeaker setups, like often found in driving simulators. Derived models and parametrization are based on measurements and recordings from several real vehicles.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

2014-06-30
2014-01-2040
Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

2014-06-30
2014-01-2041
Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Journal Article

Predicted Roughness Perception for Simulated Vehicle Interior Noise

2012-06-13
2012-01-1561
In the past the exterior and interior noise level of vehicles has been largely reduced to follow stricter legislation and due to the demand of the customers. As a consequence, the noise quality and no longer the noise level inside the vehicle plays a crucial role. For an economic development of new powertrains it is important to assess noise quality already in early development stages by the use of simulation. Recent progress in NVH simulation methods of powertrain and vehicle in time and frequency domain provides the basis to pre-calculated sound pressure signals at arbitrary positions in the car interior. Advanced simulation tools for elastic multi-body simulation and novel strategies to measure acoustical transfer paths are combined to achieve this goal. In order to evaluate the obtained sound impression a roughness prediction model has been developed. The proposed roughness model is a continuation of the model published by Hoeldrich and Pflueger.
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