Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects. The severity varies based on the particle size as they deposit at different parts in the respiratory system. After-treatment systems are employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of the after-treatment system depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size could potentially be used in reducing particle number or changing the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of HD diesel engine’s turbine on non-volatile particle number and size distribution.
In order to mitigate the effect of fossil fuels on global warming, biodiesel is used as drop in fuel. However, in the mixture of biodiesel and diesel, soft particles may form. These soft particles are organic compounds, which can originate from the production and degradation of biodiesel. Further when fuel is mixed with unwanted contaminants such as engine oil the amount soft particles can increases. The presence of these particles can cause malfunction in the fuel system of the engine, such as nozzle fouling, internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) or fuel filter plugging. Soft particles and the mechanism of their formation is curtail to understand in order to study and prevent their effects on the fuel system. This paper focuses on one type of soft particles, which are metal soaps. More precisely on the role of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) during their formation. In order to do so, aged and unaged B10 and B100 were studied.
Pollutant emission of vehicle cars is nowadays a fundamental aspect to take into account. In the last decays, the company have been forced to study new solutions, such as alternative fuel and learn burn mixture strategy, to reduce the vehicle’s pollutants below the limits imposed by emission regulations. Pre-chamber ignition system presents potential reductions in emission levels and fuel consumption, operating with lean burn mixtures and alternative fuels. The aim of this work is to study the evolution of the plasma jets in a different in-cylinder conditions. The activity was carried out in a research optical small spark ignition (SI) engine equipped alternatively with standard ignition system and per-chamber. The engine runs at 2000 rpm at wide open throttle (WOT) in standard ignition condition and slightly turbocharged in prechamber condition in order to overcame the decrease of compression ratio. In this activity methane and gasoline were used.
The numerical reconstruction of the liquid jet generated by a multi-hole injector, operating in flash-boiling conditions, has been developed by means of an Eulerian- Lagrangian CFD code and validated thanks to experimental data collected with schlieren and Mie scattering imaging techniques. The model has been tested with different injection parameters in order to recreate various possible engine thermodynamic conditions. The work carried out is framed in the growing interest present around the gasoline direct-injection systems (GDI). Such technology has been recognized as an effective way to achieve better engine performance and reduced pollutant emissions. High-pressure injectors operating in flashing conditions are demonstrating many advantages in the applications for GDI engines providing a better fuel atomization, a better mixing with the air, a consequent more efficient combustion and, finally, reduced tailpipe emissions.
To tackle the problem arising due to emissions and to reduce them, complex after-treatment system is used. For efficient working of the after treatment system it must operate at sufficient high temperature even at low loads for better conversion efficiency. Also, there is different temperature requirements for different catalyst used in SCR (Selective catalyst reduction) system. For this, various on engine strategies are implemented on modern diesel engines such as multiple fuel injection, late fuel injection, high injection pressure and exhaust gas recirculation. Thermal management is an operating condition which must be triggered when there is need of elevated temperatures for efficient functioning of the after treatment system. Thermal management includes SCR thermal management and regeneration. The process of removing deposits from after treatment system is known as regeneration.
Fueling compression ignition engines with fossil fuels are spoiling the economy and environment. Also, waste plastics that are not recyclable are spoiling the land, groundwater resources, and air. This experimental study is to fuel waste plastic oil into a compression ignition engine operated under optimal operating parameters. The experiment included: Obtaining the optimal set of operating parameters by using the Taguchi method and fueling the compression ignition engine by waste plastic oil under the optimal operating parameters into the compression ignition engine under various load conditions. Also, an analysis of results obtained with that diesel. Waste plastic oil was procured from bulk manufacturing pyrolysis plants.
This paper deals with the performance, emission and combustion features of a single cylinder four stroke compression ignition engine with fuel injection timing at advancement and retardment. The current experiment was conducted on a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine fuelled with microalgae methyl ester blended with pure diesel in the proportions of 30% and 70% respectively and it was designated as B30 (30% Microalgae methyl ester + 70% Pure diesel). The present test was carried out at three different fuel injection timings such as 190 R CA (Retarded crank angle), 230 S CA (Standard crank angle) and 270 A CA (Advanced crank angle) BTDC.
This investigation is based on the development of internal combustion engine and focusing on retaining the two-stroke cycle engine with sophisticated technologies. Due to stringent emission norms, faster depletion of petroleum fuels, fuel economy this modification is suggested based on the critical analysis. The development of a supercharged cross breed engine will be a next milestone in automotive fields, which will enhance the upcoming I.C. engines to work under effective efficiency without any deviations from the actual working cycle. The design and simulation have been carried to out to reduce or eliminate the losses during operation. Also,both the power and emission characteristics of a engine were balanced and improved than the conventional engines.