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Common Rail Diesel Fuel Injection

2019-08-14
The improved efficiencies of the modern diesel engine have led to its increased use within the mobility industry. The vast majority of these diesel engines employ a high-pressure common rail fuel injection system to increase the engine's fuel-saving potential, emissions reduction, and overall performance. This one-day seminar will begin with a review of the basic principles of diesel engines and fuel injection systems. Diesel and alternative fuels will be discussed, followed by current and emerging diesel engine applications.
Technical Paper

RDE testing of passenger cars: the effect of the cold start on the emissions results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0747
This paper presents the results of passenger car tests (RDE - real driving emsisions on-road tests conducted under real-world driving conditions as defined by EU legislation). The main focus was on the comparison of exhaust emission results for two test cases: excluding the cold start during the initial phase of the RDE test (the procedure was in force until 2018) and the inclusion of cold within the emission results (i.e the current procedure) and the contribution of the same to the final results. In addition tosome theoretical arguments, some results obtained using the aforementioned procedures are presented. The tests were carried out ona passenger car with a spark-ignition engine with direct fuel injection; the vehicle met the Euro 6c emission standard. Implications for the testing process, emissions control and the future emissions profile for vehicles with such engines are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Pressure on Nozzle Internal Flow and Jet Breakup under Sub-Cooled and Flash Boiling Test Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0286
Injection pressure plays a vital role in spray break-up and atomization. High spray injection pressure is usually adopted to optimize the spray atomization in gasoline direct injection fuel system. However, higher injection pressure also leads to engine emission problem related to wall wetting. To solve this problem, researchers are trying to use flash boiling method to control the spray atomization process under lower injection test conditions. However, the effect of injection pressure on the spray atomization under flash boiling test condition has not been adequately investigated yet. In this study, quantitative study of internal flow and near nozzle spray breakup were carried out based on a two-dimensional transparent nozzle via microscopic imaging and phase Doppler interferometery. N-hexane was chosen as test fluid with different injection pressure conditions. Fuel temperature varied from 112°C to 148°C, which covered a wide range of superheated conditions.
Technical Paper

Study of Flash Boiling Spray Combustion in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Optical Engine Using Digital Image Processing Diagnostics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0252
Flash boiling spray has been proven to be a useful method in providing finer fuel droplet and stronger evaporation in favor of creating a homogeneous fuel-air mixture. Combustion characteristics of flash boiling spray are thus valuable to be investigated systematically for aiding the development of efficient internal combustion system. An experimental study of flash boiling spray combustion in a SIDI optical engine under early injection has been conducted. The fuel, Iso-octane, was used across all tests. Three fuel spray conditions experimented in the study: normal liquid, transitional flash boiling and flare flash boiling sprays, within each case that Pa/Ps ratio was set in (>1), (0.3~1), and (<0.3) respectively. A small quartz insert on the piston enables optical access for observing combustion process; non-intrusive measurements on flame radicals has been carried out using a high-speed color camera.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G

2019-04-02
2019-01-0283
The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion. This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
Technical Paper

The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1292
In general, vehicles do not need to make power from engines in deceleration periods. Therefore, fuel cut-off mode can be applied in these periods to improve fuel efficiency. However, during the fuel cut-off periods, a large amount of fresh air flows from the engine into the catalytic converter equipped with the car because there is no combustion. So, the catalytic materials in the converters are changed into oxidized atmosphere. Eventually the efficiency for the NOx purification of catalytic converter rapidly deteriorates and catalytic converters cannot purify the NOx emitted immediately after the fuel cut-off. So, the conditions of fuel-cut off entries have no choice but to be strict for the cars which should meet stringent regulations such as SULEV 30. This strategy is not good for fuel efficiency. In this study, NOx emission process at this period was analyzed microscopically. Additionally, in order to reduce it, new concept of catalyst had been developed.
Technical Paper

Pathway to 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency using Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI)

2019-04-02
2019-01-1154
Continued improvement in the combustion process of internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and criteria emissions for automotive transportation around the world. One consequence of increased engine efficiency is lower exhaust temperatures. This presents challenges for both turbocharging and aftertreatment. In this paper, test results for the third generation Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine are presented. The engine is a 2.2L, four-cylinder, double-overhead-cam engine with compression ratio ~16:1. A 2.5kW electric air heater positioned upstream of the intake valves is used for cold starts; no spark plugs are used. The engine features a wetless combustion system with a high-pressure GDi fuel system. At low load, exhaust rebreathing was used to promote autoignition and elevate exhaust temperatures to maintain high catalyst conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental PEM-Fuel Cell Range Extender System Operation and Parameter Influence Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0378
Fuel cells as alternative propulsion systems in vehicles can achieve higher driving ranges and shorter refueling times compared to pure battery-electric vehicles, while maintaining the local zero-emission status. However, to take advantage of pure battery electric driving, an externally rechargeable battery can be combined with a fuel cell range extender. As part of a research project, an efficient air supply system for a fuel cell range extender was developed. To this end, a 25 kW PEM fuel cell system test bench was set up. The different parameter influences of the test bench, in particular of the air supply system, were analyzed and evaluated in terms of stack/system efficiency and functionality. The control software of the test bench was specifically developed for the flexible operating parameter variation. All adjustable variables of the system (air ratio, stack temperature, pressure, etc.) were varied and evaluated at steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Simplifications on Turbulent Mixing at Varying Injection Timings in a Piston Bowl PPC Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0220
In computational fluid dynamic simulations of partially premixed combustion engines it is common to find simplifications of the in cylinder flow conditions in order to save computational cost. One common simplification is to start the simulation at the moment of intake valve closing with an assumed initial flow condition, rather than making a full scavenging simulation. Another common simplification is the periodic sector assumption, limiting all sector cuts of the full cylinder to be identical periodic copies of each other. This work studies how such flow simplifications affect the spray injection and in turn the fuel/air mixing at different injection timings. Focus is put on the stratification of fuel concentration and gas temperature due to interaction of the spray, turbulence and piston geometry. The investigated engine setup consists of a light duty engine with a piston bowl and a five-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Gasoline Direct Injection System for Reduction of Real Mode Emission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0265
Continuous improvement of gasoline engine emissions performance is required to further protect the global environment and also the impact of emissions on a local level. During real world driving, transient engine operation and variation in fuel injection, airflow, and wall temperature are key factors to be controlled. Due to the limited opportunity for optimization of engine control, generation of a well-mixed fuel spray is necessary to create a suitable combustion environment to minimize emissions. Optimum spray performance achieves minimum surface wetting as well as promoting evaporation and diffusion if wetting occurs. Improvement in spray homogeneity is an important step to achieve this. Higher fuel pressure is initially considered to achieve improvements, as it is expected to improve mixture formation by reduction of wall wetting due to high atomization and lower penetration, as well as improvement in spray homogeneity.
Technical Paper

Hybrid URANS/LES Turbulence Modeling for Spray Simulation: A Computational Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0270
Turbulence modeling for fuel spray simulation plays a prominent role in the understanding of the flow behavior in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Currently, a lot of research work is actively spent on Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence modeling as a replacement option of standard Reynolds averaged approaches in the Eulerian-Lagrangian spray modeling framework, due to its capability to accurately describe flow-induced spray variability and to the lower dependence of the results on the specific turbulence model and/or modeling coefficients. The introduction of LES poses, however, additional questions related to the implementation/adaptation of spray-related turbulence sources and to the rise of conflicting numerics and grid requirements between the Lagrangian and Eulerian parts of the simulated flow.
Technical Paper

An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0294
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment. This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Single Fuel Droplet Impact on Oil Film

2019-04-02
2019-01-0304
In order to better understand the spray impingement behavior of the gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, this paper used the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) test method to conduct basic research on the fuel droplet impact onto the oil film. The effects of different incident droplet Weber number, dimensionless oil film thickness and oil film viscosity on the morphology of oil film after impact were investigated. And the composition of splashing droplets after impingement was analyzed. The morphology of oil film after impact was divided into three categories: stable crown, delayed splash crown, and prompt splash crown. The stable crown has only splashing fuel droplets, the splashing droplets of delayed splash crown are consist of fuel and oil film. The splashing droplets of prompt splash crown mainly include the oil film. It is shown that the larger the Weber number of incident droplets, the larger the dimensionless crown height and diameter, the easier the oil film will splash.
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