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Technical Paper

How Can a Sustainable Energy Infrastructure based on Renewable Fuels Contribute to Global Carbon Neutrality?

2024-07-02
2024-01-3023
Abstract. With the COP28 decisions the world is thriving for a future net-zero-CO2 society and the and current regulation acts, the energy infrastructure is changing in direction of renewables in energy production. All industry sectors will extend their share of direct or indirect electrification. The question might arise if the build-up of the renewables in energy production is fast enough. Demand and supply might not match in the short- and mid-term. The paper will discuss the roadmaps, directions and legislative boundary parameter in the regenerative energy landscape and their regional differences. National funding on renewables will gain an increasing importance to accelerate the energy transformation. The are often competing in attracting the same know-how on a global scale. In addition the paper includes details about energy conversion, efficiency as well as potential transport scenarios from production to the end consumer.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Measurements in the Recirculation Path of a Fuel Cell System

2024-07-02
2024-01-3009
When using "green" hydrogen, fuel cell technology plays a key role in emission-free mobility. A powertrain based on fuel cells (FC) shows its advantages over battery-electric powertrains when the requirement profile primarily demands high performance over a longer period of time, high flexible availability and short refueling times. In addition, FC achieves higher effi-ciencies than the combustion of hydrogen in a gas engine, meaning that the chemical energy is used more efficiently than with established combustion engines. When using FC technology, numerous companies in Baden-Württemberg can contribute their specific expertise from the traditional automotive construction and supplier business. This includes auxiliary units in the air (cathode) and hydrogen (anode) path, such as the air compressor, the H2 recycling pump, humidifier, cooling system, power electronics, valve and pressure tank technology as well as components of the fuel cell stack itself.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
For the purpose of achieving carbon-neutrality in the mobility sector by 2050, hydrogen can play a crucial role as an alternative energy carrier, not only for direct usage in fuel cell-powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines. This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble engine with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern engines. An alternative and more pragmatic lagrangian 3D-CFD approach offers opportunities for a significant reduction in computational effort without sacrificing reliability.
Technical Paper

Harmonic injection method for NVH optimization of permanent magnet synchronous motors considering the structural characteristics of the machine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3015
Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) is one of the most important performance evaluation aspect of electric motors. Among the different causes of the NVH issues of electrical drives, the high-frequency spatial and temporal harmonics of the electrical drive system is of great importance. To reduce the tonal noise of the electric motors, harmonic injection methods can be applied. However, a lot of the existing related work focuses more on improving the optimization process of the parameter settings of the injected current/flux/voltage, which are usually limited to some specific working conditions. The applicability and effectivity of the algorithm to the whole frequency/speed range are not investigated. In this paper, a multi-domain pipeline of harmonic injection controller design for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is proposed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of a Dual-Fuel Hydrogen–Kerosene Engine for Sustainable General Aviation

2024-06-17
2024-01-6001
Reducing CO2 emissions is an increasingly important issue. In aviation, approaches such as e-propulsion only represent a solution for special applications due to the low energy density of batteries. Because of the low-cost and robust design of combustion engines, this concept is still the most suitable for general aviation. For defossilization, besides e-fuels and bio-fuels, which represent the so-called sustainable aviation fuels (SAF), hydrogen can serve as a promising energy carrier for CO2 reduction. For this purpose, the combustion process of a dual-fuel hydrogen–kerosene (Jet A-1) engine was developed and investigated for use in small aircrafts. This study explores the influence of hydrogen addition on combustion parameters, emissions, and efficiency.
Journal Article

Engine Behavior Analysis on a Conventional Diesel Engine Powered with Blends of Lemon Grass Oil Biodiesel–Diesel Blends

2024-06-14
Abstract Fossil fuel usage causes environmental pollution, and fuel depletion, further affecting a country’s economy. Biofuels and diesel-blended fuels are practical alternatives to sustain fossil fuels. This experimental study analyses lemongrass oil’s performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics after blending with diesel. Lemongrass oil is mixed with diesel at 10 (B10), 15 (B15), and 25% (B25) and evaluated using a 5.20 kW direct injection diesel engine. B10 brake thermal efficiency is 36.47%, which is higher than other blends. The B10 displays an 8.73% decrease in brake-specific fuel consumption compared to diesel. An increase in exhaust gas temperature for B10 than diesel is 4.5%. It indicates that higher lemongrass oil blends decrease exhaust gas temperature. The decrease in average carbon monoxide emissions in B10 to diesel is 22.19%. The decrease in hydrocarbon emissions for B10 to diesel is 7.14%.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Quality Assurance during End of Line Engine Test Approval

2024-06-12
2024-01-2922
Liebherr Machines Bulle SA (LMB) designs and produces High-quality diesel engines, injection systems as well as hydraulic components. Liebherr has an Acoustic End of Line (AEOL) system on serial test benches. All engines are measured, and noises are evaluated by operators. This subjective evaluation leads to dispersion on the evaluations, particularly for whining noise. To ensure customer satisfaction, Liebherr wishes to define a new methodology to find a quantitative and objective criterion to set a robust engine noise compliance standard. This new methodology is based on near field microphone measurement of an engine run-down. First, whining noise signatures are extracted from the raw signal. Secondly, psychoacoustic indicators are calculated on the extracted signatures. Thresholds are then established to validate engine deliveries. Finally, this process combining advanced signal processing and psychoacoustics is automated using the Ansys Sound Python library in mass production.
Technical Paper

Effect of Dithering on Post-Catalyst Exhaust Gas Composition and on Short Time Regeneration of Deactivated PdO/Al2O3 Catalysts under Real Engine Conditions

2024-06-12
2024-37-0002
Fossil fuels such as natural gas used in engines still play an important role worldwide which however is also exacerbating climate change as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. Although natural gas engines show an overall low pollutant emissions level, methane slip due to incomplete combustion occurs, causing methane emissions with a more than 20 times higher global warming potential than CO2. Additionally, further tightening of emissions legislation is to be expected bringing methane emissions even more into focus making exhaust gas aftertreatment issues remain relevant. For lean gas applications, (Pd)-based catalysts turned out to convert CH4 most efficiently usually being supported by metal oxides such as aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Water (H2O) contained in the exhaust gas causes strong inhibition on Pd catalysts.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen High Pressure Direct Injection toward Future Emissions Compliance: Optimizing Engine-Out NOx and Thermal Efficiency

2024-06-12
2024-37-0005
By building on mature internal combustion engine (ICE) hardware combined with dedicated hydrogen (H2) technology, the H2-ICE has excellent potential to accelerate CO2 reduction. H2-ICE concepts can therefore contribute to realizing the climate targets in an acceptable timeframe. In the landscape of H2-ICE concepts, pilot-ignited High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI™) is an attractive option considering its high thermal efficiency, wide load range and its applicability to on-road as well as off-road heavy-duty equipment. Still, H2-HPDI is characterized by diffusion combustion, giving rise to significant NOx emissions. In this paper, the potential of H2-HPDI toward compliance with future emissions legislation is explored on a 1.8L single-cylinder research engine. With tests on multiple load-speed points, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was shown to be an effective measure for reducing engine-out NOx, although at the cost of a few efficiency points.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid-Electric Medium-HD Demonstrator Vehicle with a Pent-Roof SI Natural Gas Engine

2024-06-12
2024-37-0026
In response to global climate change, there is a widespread push to reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector. For the difficult to decarbonize heavy-duty (HD) vehicle sector, hybridization and lower carbon-intensity fuels can offer a low-cost, near-term solution for CO2 reduction. The use of natural gas can provide such an alternative for HD vehicles while the increasing availability of renewable natural gas affords the opportunity for much deeper reductions in net-CO2 emissions. With this in consideration, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory launched the Natural Gas Vehicle Research and Development Project to stimulate advancements in technology and availability of natural gas vehicles. As part of this program, Southwest Research Institute developed a hybrid-electric medium-HD vehicle (class 6) to demonstrate a substantial CO2 reduction over the baseline diesel vehicle and ultra-low NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as an Approach for Reducing Cylinder-to-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of a High-Performance Engine Fueled with H2 and Equipped with a Low NOx After-Treatment Device

2024-06-12
2024-37-0009
Hydrogen engines are currently considered as a viable solution to preserve the internal combustion engine (ICE) as a power unit for vehicle propulsion. In particular, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigations, due to their reduced emission levels and high thermodynamic efficiency. Lean charge is suitable for the purpose of passenger car applications, where the demand of mid/low power output does not require an excessive amount of air to be delivered by the turbocharging unit, but can difficulty be tailored in the field of high performance engine, where the air mass delivered would require oversized turbocharging systems or more complex charging solutions. For this reason, the range of feeding conditions near the stochiometric value is explored in the field of high performance engines, leading to the consequent issue of abatement of pollutant emissions.
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