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Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0987
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-0956
Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Classification in Filtration and Regeneration-Plant Modeling for SiL and HiL Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0968
The present work describes an existing transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D particulate filter model to capture the impact of different types of particulate matter (PM) on filtration and regeneration. PM classes of arbitrary characteristics (size, composition etc.) are transported and filtered following standard mechanisms. PM deposit populations of arbitrary composition and contact states are used to describe regeneration on a micro-kinetical level. The transport class and deposit population are linked by introducing a splitting deposit matrix. Filtration and regeneration modes are compared to experimental data from literature and a brief numerical assessment on the filtration model is performed. The filter model as part of an exhaust line is used in a concept study on different coating variants. The same exhaust line model is connected to an engine thermodynamic and vehicle model. This system model is run through a random drive cycle in office simulation.
Journal Article

Modeling of Catalyzed Particulate Filters - Concept Phase Simulation and Real-Time Plant Modeling on HiL

2016-04-05
2016-01-0968
The present work introduces an extended particulate filter model focusing on capabilities to cover catalytic and surface storage reactions and to serve as a virtual multi-functional reactor/separator. The model can be classified as a transient, non-isothermal 1D+1D two-channel model. The applied modeling framework offers the required modeling depth to investigate arbitrary catalytic reaction schemes and it follows the computational requirement of running in real-time. The trade-off between model complexity and computational speed is scalable. The model is validated with the help of an analytically solved reference and the model parametrization is demonstrated by simulating experimentally given temperatures of a heat-up measurement. The detailed 1D+1D model is demonstrated in a concept study comparing the impact of different spatial washcoat distributions.
Journal Article

xD+1D Catalyst Simulation-A Numerical Study on the Impact of Pore Diffusion

2012-04-16
2012-01-1295
This paper presents a numerical study on the impact of washcoat diffusion on the overall conversion performance of catalytic converters. A comprehensive transient 1D pore diffusion reaction model is embedded in state-of-the-art 1D and 3D catalytic converter models. The pore diffusion model is discussed with its model equations and the applied diffusive transport approaches are summarized. The diffusion reaction model is validated with the help of two available analytical solutions. The impact of basic washcoat characteristics such as pore diameters or thickness on overall conversion performance is investigated by selected 1D+1D calculations. This model is also used to highlight the impact of boundary layer transfer, pore diffusion and reaction on the overall converter conversion performance. The interaction of pore diffusion and flow non-uniformities is demonstrated by 3D+1D CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

Real Time Capable Pollutant Formation and Exhaust Aftertreatment Modeling-HSDI Diesel Engine Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1438
Modern Diesel engines require an integrated development of combustion strategies, air management and exhaust aftertreatment. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach with the aim to support engine development activities in the virtual environment. A real-time capable engine, vehicle and control model is extended by three key features. First, a pollutant production model is embedded in a two-zone cylinder model. Second, a framework for catalytic pollutant conversion is built focusing on modern diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Third, an extended species transport model is introduced considering the transport of pollutants through the air path. The entire plant model is validated on the example of a passenger car Diesel engine. The predicted engine behavior is compared with steady-state measurements. The NO formation model is investigated for a series of steady-state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Systems - Thermal Behavior During Different Operating Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0865
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires continuous improvement of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Modern systems require a combined design and application of different aftertreatment devices. Computer simulation helps to investigate the complexity of different system layouts. This study presents an overall aftertreatment modeling framework comprising dedicated models for pipes, oxidation catalysts, wall flow particulate filters and selective catalytic converters. The model equations of all components are discussed. The individual behavior of all components is compared to experimental data. With these well calibrated models a simulation study on a DOC-DPF-SCR exhaust system is performed. The impact of pipe wall insulation on the overall NOx conversion performance is investigated during four different engine operating conditions taken from a heavy-duty drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Advanced Simulation Technologies for Diesel Particulate Filters, A Fundamental Study on Asymmetric Channel Geometries

2007-04-16
2007-01-1137
The pressure drop as well as the overall lifetime of wall flow diesel particulate filters is strongly influenced by the capability of storing non-combustible ash. One approach to reach low pressure drops and long filter lifetimes is the application of optimized channel geometries. This study presents a comprehensive simulation approach for filters with asymmetrical channel structures in the presence of soot and ash. The wall flow model, soot loading and regeneration approaches are discussed with all model equations. The soot filtration model distinguishes between the regimes of depth and cake filtration. The regeneration model takes into account soot regeneration reactions, catalytically supported soot reactions and catalytic wall reactions. The simulated pressure drop of filters with different channel diameters at different operating conditions is compared to measured values. The predicted pressure drop due to depth and cake filtration is compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Integrated 1D to 3D Simulation Workflow of Exhaust Aftertreatment Devices

2004-03-08
2004-01-1131
Future limits on emissions for both gasoline and Diesel engines require adequate and advanced systems for the after-treatment of the exhaust gas. Computer models as a complementary tool to experimental investigations are an indispensable part to design reliable after-treatment devices such as catalytic converters and Diesel particulate filters including their influence on the power-train. Therefore, the objective of this contribution is to present an integrated 1D to 3D simulation workflow of of catalytic converters and Diesel particulate filters. The novelty of this approach is that parameters or set of parameters, obtained by a fast and efficient 1D-gas exchange and cycle simulation code for power-trains (AVL (2002a)), are readily transferable onto a 3D general purpose simulation code (AVL (2002b)). Thus, detailed aspects such as spatial distribution of temperatures or heat losses are investigated with only a single effort to estimate parameters.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converters in a 1d Cycle Simulation Code Considering 3d Behavior

2003-03-03
2003-01-1002
The objective of this study to introduce the newly developed Discrete Channel Method (DCM) as a fast and efficient method for the prediction of the 3d and transient behavior of honeycomb-type catalytic converters in automotive applications. The approach is based on the assumption that the regions between the channels are treated as a reactor with a homogeneously distributed heat source due to chemical conversion. Therefore, each radial direction can be described by a center, a boundary and only a few intermediate channels between them. The discrete channels are described by transient, 1d conservation equations that characterize the behavior of channels at different radial positions. The heat entering and leaving each discrete channel is evaluated by the gradients of the temperature field in conjunction with the heat conductivity of the substrate. The approach is validated by experimental data and serves as a module in the thermodynamic and engine analysis design tool BOOST.
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