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Technical Paper

Benefits of Electronic Assisted Variable Geometry Turbocharging on Sports Utility Vehicle

Turbocharging of diesel engines have undergone various phases of technological advancements proving merits with engine performance. Since VGTs are finding their applications in many automotive engines, it is also crucial on finding out ways to extract maximum benefits from the system. Pneumatic actuated VGTs control the vanes positioning with the help of mechanical linkages and don’t prove good in transient response with relatively slower boost build up. The electronic controlled VGT operates with the aid of DC motor which is linked to the engine management system. The position sensor senses the current position of the actuator which is controlled by the engine management system for delivering the desired boost pressure. The eVGT system thus provides very quick response and accurate control of boost pressure in all the vehicle driving conditions.
Journal Article

Countering the Destabilizing Effects of Shifted Loads through Pneumatic Suspension Design

Abstract This article proposes a novel approach to reduce the destabilizing impacts of the shifted loads of heavy trucks (due to improper loading or liquid slosh) by pneumatic suspension design. In this regard, the pneumatically balanced suspension with dual leveling valves is introduced, and its potential for the improvement of the body imbalance due to the shifted load is determined. The analysis is based on a multi-domain model that couples the suspension fluid dynamics, shifted-load impacts, and tractor-semitrailer dynamics. Truck dynamics is simulated using TruckSim, which is integrated with the pneumatic suspension model developed in AMESim. This yields a reasonable prediction of the effect of the suspension airflow dynamics on vehicle dynamics. Moreover, the ability of the pneumatic suspension to counteract the effects of two general shifted loads - static (rigid cargo) and dynamic (liquid) - is studied.
Journal Article

Optimization of Pneumatic Network Actuators with Isosceles Trapezoidal Chambers

Abstract Soft actuators with pneumatic network have innovative potential applications in medical and rehabilitation areas. The performance of this kind of actuators is determined by the design of chambers and the properties of the active extensible layer and the passive inextensible layer. In this article, actuator with isosceles trapezoidal chambers is proposed. Orthogonal experiment design and finite element method are used to optimize the structure of actuators. Results indicate that adding constrain-limiting paper in the passive layer can significantly reduce the bending radius. Position of the paper in the passive layer also affects the bending radius. Actuators with trapezoidal chambers can have a smaller bending radius compared with that with rectangle chambers. The bending radius decreases as the ratio of short base to long base of trapezoid decreases. Increasing the number density of chambers can further reduce the bending radius.
Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Architectures for a Morphing Flight Control Structure

Bionics in aeronautics has the potential to increase the performance and efficiency of aircraft significantly. Inspired by the wings of birds, morphing wing structures have been extensively investigated over the last decades. The continuous adaption of the wings over a large scale of the flight envelope enables an optimization of the aerodynamic characteristics and, this way, a reduction of the fuel consumption. Additionally, those structures could support or replace traditional flight control surfaces. Depending on the morphing technology, different systems may be suitable to actuate the morphing structure. An early inclusion of the system architecture into the development of the morphing technology enables designing an optimal system in compliance with all requirements. Therefore, this paper discusses the conceptual design of system architectures for a novel morphing wing structure that is used for flight control.

Hose and Hose Assemblies for Marine Applications

SAE J1942, developed through the cooperative efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard and SAE, became effective August 28, 19911, as the official document for nonmetallic flexible hose assemblies for commercial marine use. This SAE Standard covers specific requirements for several styles of hose and/or hose assemblies in systems aboard commercial vessels inspected and certificated by the U.S. Coast Guard. It is intended that this document establish hose constructions and performance levels that are essential to safe operations in the marine environment. Refer to SAE J1273 for selection, installation, and maintenance of hose and hose assemblies. Refer to SAE J1527 for hose to convey gasoline or diesel fuel aboard small craft, including pleasure craft and related small commercial craft regulated directly or by reference under 33 CFR 183 Subpart J, and boats and yachts meeting American Boat and Yacht Council standards.

Contaminants for Testing Air Brake Components and Auxiliary Pneumatic Devices—Truck and Bus

This SAE Information Report establishes a minimum level of uniform recipes for contaminants which may be used when durability testing pneumatic components to obtain additional information on how a device may perform under more true to-life operating conditions. This type of contamination testing, however, is not meant to replace the type of performance testing described in SAE J1409 and SAE J1410. Durability testing in the presence of contamination, however, will yield results more reflective of actual in-service field conditions and provide an additional evaluation of pneumatic devices. While the contaminant supply rate and other test criteria of the device being tested must be set by the device manufacturer or user, the items covered in this document will be: 1.1 Formula for contaminated oil to be used as a lubricant when testing air compressors. 1.2 Formula for a contaminant to be used when testing pneumatic system components other than air compressors. 1.3 Other contaminants.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).

Test Methods for Tube-Fitting Assemblies

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) specifies test methods for tube-fitting assemblies used in aircraft fluid systems in the following pressure classes: B (1500 psi or 10500 kPa), D (3000 psi or 21000 kPa), E (4000 psi or 28000 kPa), and J (5000 psi or 35000 kPa) and in temperature types I (-65 to 160 °F or -55 to 70 °C), II (-65 to 275 °F or -55 to 135 °C), and III (-65 to 400 °F or -55 to 200 °C) of AS2001. This document applies each time that it is referred to in a procurement specification or other definition document. Fluids and materials used for the tests are listed in Section 2.

Coupling Assembly, V-Band Sheet Metal Wide Flange, Pneumatic Tube

This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for a grooved clamp coupling and flanges suitable for joining intermediate pressure and temperature ducting in aircraft pneumatic systems. The coupling joint assembly, hereafter referred to as "the joint", shall operate within the temperature range of -65 °F external ambient to +800 °F internal fluid.

Coiled Tubing - Corrosion Resistant Steel, Hydraulic Applications, Aerospace

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) addresses the design, installation, and testing of coiled tube assemblies ranging from 1/4 inch (6.3 mm) to 1.0 inch (25 mm) diameter using CRES tubing per AMS-T-6845, unless otherwise approved by the Procuring Activity. This ARP specifically details three different configurations of coiled tubing. These configurations should be compatible with pressure levels up to 3000 psi (20.7 MPa) upon the completion of the analysis for the actual stress and life requirement of the intended application. However, formal qualification tests are recommended to verify the satisfactory installation, clamping, and the life of each unique design. NOTE: Refer to ARP4146 for information on design of coiled tube assemblies using Titanium tubing.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Study on the Improvement of Semi-Truck Roll Stability in Roundabouts

This paper studies the effect of different longitudinal load conditions, roundabout cross-sectional geometry, and different semi-truck pneumatic suspension systems on roll stability in roundabouts, which have become more and more popular in urban settings. Roundabouts are commonly designed in their size and form to accommodate articulated heavy vehicles (AHVs) by evaluating such affects as off-tracking. However, the effect of the roadway geometry in roundabouts on the roll dynamics of semi-tractors and trailers are equally important, along with their entry and exit configuration. , Because the effect of the roundabout on the dynamics of trucks is further removed from the immediate issues considered by roadway planner, at times they are not given as much consideration as other roadway design factors.