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Training / Education

Introduction to Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Battery Systems

2021-11-04
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and higher efficiency, hybrid vehicles are appearing in many different configurations on today's roadways. While the powertrain components such as the drive motor, motor controller and cooling system are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the battery systems are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This seminar will introduce participants to the concepts of hybrid vehicles, their missions and the role of batteries in fulfilling those requirements.
Training / Education

Big Data Analytics for Connected, Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Cities

2021-09-28
There is growing interest in the concept of a smart city and how these advanced technologies will improve the quality of living and make a city more attractive to visitors, commerce and industry. This course fills an unmet need for defining and explaining the relationship between connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) and smart city transportation. It is apparent that CAVs will achieve the best results when integrated with current and emerging urban infrastructure for transportation. This course addresses such integration from technology, organizational, policy and business model perspectives.
Technical Paper

Estimation of socio-economic loss due to road traffic accident deaths in India

2021-09-22
2021-26-0012
India witnessed 151 417 road deaths in the year 20181 and this alarming number is due to increased urbanization, motorization and per capita income. India is home to the 2nd largest road network in the world and accounts for the highest number of road deaths globally. Curbing the menace of road deaths requires tactical road safety policies and their effective implementation. The meagre availability of factual data regarding socio-economic loss due to road crashes is proving to be a hindrance to the ideation and implementation of the policies. The Planning Commission estimated the social costs of road accidents to be ₹ 55 000 crore in 1999-2000 which was roughly 3% of the country’s GDP and this value was revised to ₹ 100 000 crores in 2011. Absence of data regarding the loss in recent times due to road crashes have been a motivating factor to our study. Road deaths bring about a great deal of human suffering in terms of social, medical and economic costs.
Technical Paper

Powered Two and Three Wheeler Safety

2021-09-22
2021-26-0013
Road traffic crashes kill 1.25 million people each year. Like all road traffic crashes, those involving powered two- and three-wheelers (PTWs) such as motorcycles, auto-rickshaw and e-bikes are often predictable and preventable, and should not be accepted as inevitable. Key risk factors for motorcycle and three-wheeler traffic injuries are non-use of helmets; vehicle speed; alcohol use; mixed traffic conditions; disobeying traffic rules; lack of traffic management; lack of protection from the vehicle itself during a crash; regular vehicle maintenance; and lack of safe riding or driving infrastructure for PTWs, such as poor road surfaces and roadside hazards. Reduction or elimination of the risks faced by PTW users is an important and achievable policy goal, and despite the existence of proven interventions to prevent PTW crashes, in many locations PTW safety does not attract the attention it merits.
Technical Paper

Enhanced eCall and Crash Severity Estimation for Two Wheelers

2021-09-22
2021-26-0024
In 2017, 16 citizens were killed and 53 were injured every hour on Indian roads as per officially reported data, while a fair number go unreported. With more than 30% of road accident deaths attributed to motorcyclists, there is an unrelenting need for automotive solutions that can minimize traffic fatalities and improve the road safety scenario in the country. The correlation between collision notification, emergency response and accident severity can be driven from the data which indicates that over the last two decades, while the total number of accidents and injuries show a small dip, fatalities have increased sharply. As the automotive industry focuses to develop technologies that prevent accidents and reduce impact, it also stresses the significance of emergency response solutions that improves the response time and reduces casualties.
Technical Paper

Rider State Monitoring for Attentiveness Detection for Enhanced Two-wheeler Safety

2021-09-22
2021-26-0023
Statistics report that one death occurs on Indian roads every three and a half minutes. With discussions on regulating new safety technologies like ABS, ESC, Advanced Rider Assistance Systems (ARAS) etc. for two-wheelers in India, the automotive industry has been grappling with challenges, in terms of developing cost-effective and innovative solutions adapted to regional market and its customers. Also, regulations that mandate the use of rider assistive technologies not only present opportunities to improve road safety, but also challenges for safe adoption and implementation. Distracted and inattentive riding is one of the major causes for severe road accidents in two-wheeler segments . The causes of distraction can be many - but the foremost one - as indicated by the accident data analysis - is the distraction due to mobile phones.
Technical Paper

Overview of truck accidents in India and its economic loss estimation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0007
India contributed to 11% of the global road crashes and was ranked 1st st among road deaths according to the World Health Organization report 20181. Indian highways is a meagre 5% of the country’s road network but accounts for 55% of the road crashes and 63% of the road deaths2. Majority of the freight traffic is ferried by trucks/lorries along these highways and this in turn increases the probability of them being involved in a road crash. In the year 2018, 15 000 road deaths were associated with truck/lorry occupants already. However, the country’s economy is forecasted to thrive in the coming years and hence the requirement of trucks in the supply chain shall play at pivotal role. The trucking industry is an unorganized sector wherein for example the illegal overloading of vehicles and over-the-limit driving hours pose a serious threat to road users. First objective of the paper is to outline a comprehensive overview and root cause analysis for truck accidents on national level.
Technical Paper

Application of Electric Cam Phaser System (ECP) for Smooth Engine Starting Behavior in Hybrid Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0057
In the current situation and upcoming government regulations, hybrid vehicles are very promising in terms of meeting fuel economy and stringent requirements of emission norms. Herein, hybridization will be mostly done with gasoline and CNG vehicles. As a normal practice, engine is switch off at the signal and again restart with engine start-stop technology. So, instances of engine start/stop are increases in hybrid vehicle in comparison with standard IC engine vehicle. In order to achieve smooth engine start, engine starting torque can be optimized by adjusting engine valve timing. As electric cam phaser (ECP) meets valve timing target even before first engine combustion start, this is one of the critical technologies in reducing engine starting torque and time reaching to idle speed. This engine starting strategy also gives benefits in terms of reducing engine start emissions and improving fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS): Controlling Vehicle Horn decibels System

2021-09-22
2021-26-0035
In an intelligent transportation system, Advance Driver Assistance System (ADAS) plays a vital role. In ADAS, many research works are done in the area traffic sign recognition, Forward Collision Warning, Automotive navigation system, Lane departure warning system but another important area is controlling vehicle horn sound based on the different traffic zones. The recognition of zones and controlling horn-sound of the vehicle reduces noise pollution as per the different sound zone(s). In this paper, we are presenting how we can achieve controlling of horn-sound based on the zones either to alert or interact directly with the vehicle system. The detection of different zones is recognized with the help of existing sensors and cameras in the ADAS which uses image processing concepts. This methodology is effortless and can be implemented with the help of existing infrastructure in the vehicle; without any additional investment of special sensors, hardware, Smartphones and GPS.
Technical Paper

Modification of SUV Suspension system for better Off-road capability

2021-09-22
2021-26-0074
The paper curtails the modification of a SUV suspension from a leaf spring suspension to a solid axle multi-link suspension. The idea stemmed from combining the useful properties of a solid axle suspension and the multi-link suspension to get the best performance off-road. The solid axle has better roll stability, higher roll stiffness and good traction on high slip terrain while the multi-link suspension employs the Coil Over Damper which helps isolate the bump better and take heavy impact loads better than that of leaf springs. This combination of positive properties is what this paper strives to achieve. The paper looks at the various parameters behind the modification of the suspension and the ability of the modified parts to handle the tire forces. Also, the paper looks at the ability of the modified design to handle the uneven road surfaces and still maintain the required ride frequency.
Technical Paper

SELF-GOVERNING COMMUTE FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITY IN AUTONOMOUS / SHARED MOBILITY BY UNIVERSAL DESIGN PROCESS

2021-09-22
2021-26-0122
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Self-driving cars are the future of mobility systems and should be a helping hand for Peoples With Disability (PWD) for their daily commute. The current technologies are addressing only some of the needs / specific type of disability or an application in mobile that helps them during their journey in Autonomous Vehicle (AV). PWD will be looking for opportunities for self-governing commute and will be willing to travel independently with their portable helping aids, personalized configurations in vehicle, along with organized help based on their need. Our study is to understand the mobility needs and challenges for all types of PWD and enable them by a universal / inclusive design approach in autonomous vehicles. The inclusive design / features in Autonomous / Shared vehicle could motivate the PWD to travel independently or with minimum help based on type of challenge they have.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation Of Air Flow Across Hood Grille Of An Agricultural Tractor And Study For Improving Radiator Performance

2021-09-22
2021-26-0094
Radiators are cross-flow heat exchange devices which are important part of the heat rejection system in agricultural tractors. The radiator is often placed along with fan in cooling packaging of the agricultural tractor. The fan sucks the air through the radiator and air passing through the radiator cools the heated engine fluid. Fans are devices which induces air flow and its efficiency is inversely proportional to resistance offered by the system in front of it. Pressure losses occur across radiator inlet and outlet because of the close packing of the channels and thus air delivery (or suction) by fan is lesser than what should’ve been at free air delivery (FAD). Chaff, which is mixture of seed coverings, small pieces of stem or leaves, are by product of threshing operation. These small particles, because of the draft induced by fan, gets sucked through the radiator causing the space between channels to be blocked.
Technical Paper

A Robust holistic test method design for a Smart implement system of Tractor

2021-09-22
2021-26-0095
With the advent of Electronics & Technologies in Precision farming, Electronic Control Units(ECU) are increasingly becoming commonplace in Farm Equipments. As these ECUs will be subjected to a harsh environment of Mud(Water, Dust),Vibration, Mechanical shock, Electromagnetic Radiation etc., the need for a robust validation technique, which also aligns with the product development timeline is necessary. In this paper, we discuss a robust, holistic test method design and execution for such an ECU. The ECU in our paper is a standalone unit with battery pack, fetches the tractor implement's speed of rotation and transmits it to the farmer to regulate rotavator's speed to increase the efficiency of rotavator application. The test method design starts with capturing failure modes through DFMEA and consists of Reliability tests - Mechanical, Environmental, Electrical, EMC tests for compatibility in working environment & Functional tests designed based on Failure modes captured by DFMEA.
Technical Paper

Battery State of Health and Remaining Useful Life Prediction using Machine Learning Model

2021-09-22
2021-26-0145
The battery pack is the most critical part of an electric vehicle and it is the costliest part of the electric vehicle. The most common battery type in modern electric vehicles is lithium-ion, because of their high energy density, long life cycles, and relatively low cost. The state of health (SoH) of an aged battery is its measure of delivering certain performances (often quantified by its capacity) compared to its ability to do so at its initial state during its lifecycle. SoH depends on battery capacity, its voltage and current loads, and the ambient temperature. Being able to accurately predict battery health (State of Health and Remaining Useful Life) can unlock new avenues in battery production and usage. Most approaches in estimating SoH (State of Health) and RUL(Remaining Useful Life) rely on physical and semi-empirical models, which does not predict accurately many of the times.
Technical Paper

Impact of Electric Powertrain on Driving Dynamics Performance of Passenger Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0154
Electric vehicles (EVs) are gaining tremendous popularity worldwide. The reason for this is two-fold – growing consciousness among customers towards environment friendly transportation and push by regulatory authorities towards electrification and emission reduction. Automotive OEMs can be seen adopting either of the two approaches for introducing EVs – building a dedicated electric vehicle platform (Native EV) or converting an IC engine-based platform into an electric vehicle (Non-Native EV). Many of the OEMs are seen preferring the second approach for electrification of their fleet. However due to packaging limitations of the battery pack and the resulting change in weight distribution, tuning of driving dynamics of the non-native EV poses a challenge. Driving dynamics plays an important role in determining the optimum balance between driver feel, comfort and safety of the passengers.
Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of Equivalent Circuit Models and Effect of Battery Parameter Variations on State of Charge Estimation Algorithm

2021-09-22
2021-26-0153
Lithium-Ion batteries are popular for use in EV applications. To improve and understand the use of Lithium-Ion batteries in EV application, present study focused and utilized equivalent circuit models. Model parameters are identified using pulse discharge test carried on 20AH Lithium Iron Phosphate cell. Curve-fitting technique is utilized and detailed procedure to extract model parameters is presented. Models are validated with experimental data of pulse discharge test. Accuracy obtained using 1-RC, 2-RC, 3-RC circuit models is verified and high accuracy of 3RC circuit model can make it act as a battery emulator. Extended Kalman Filter is utilized for estimation of State of Charge of Lithium Iron Phosphate cell. As per our understanding from literature, a good accuracy with low computational burden can be achieved with 1RC model parameters. Therefore, accuracy of SOC estimation using 1RC model parameters is analyzed and effect of initial error in SOC is also observed.
Technical Paper

A novel concept of electric vehicle system thermal management with the fuzzification process

2021-09-22
2021-26-0151
The increasing demand for zero-emission vehicles to counter effects of global warming has increased the demand for reliable, energy-efficient, long-range and fast charging vehicles. However, the Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems like drivetrain, energy storage; must be used in the optimum safe temperature; enhances the system reliability. Here, an efficient thermal management system plays a crucial role. The thermal management systems are consuming the stored energy from the battery pack. Hence optimization is very much essential; to enhance higher vehicle range. This paper deals with the optimization techniques in thermal management system through mathematical approaches, Mat lab/Simulink models using the Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) process. In this, a Mat lab/Simulink model of thermal management system for the drivetrain and energy management system worked out; considering different vehicle modes; drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Vehicle diagnostics and Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication through Visible Light Communication (VLC)

2021-09-22
2021-26-0131
High Fidelity Communication has become a necessity in various sectors. Different wireless data transfer methods play a vital role in various far field and near-field communications. Wireless communication for transferring data through radio spectrum has been a continuously evolving trend, especially in Automotive Sector, with fleet monitoring, platooning and even connected vehicles. Some important parameters considered in selecting a wireless platform would be bandwidth, data transfer, speed and security. Some interesting advantages of communication over the visible spectrum has led to the evolution of Light Fidelity. Implementation of Visible Light Communication (VLC) in the automotive field might enable safer driving conditions through vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication with high data transmission rates and efficient-bandwidth usage. The principle of VLC is based on “line of sight” data transmission through modulation of the light source.
Technical Paper

Automatic Torque Mode Selection Based on Vehicle Load for Commercial Electric Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0141
Range of an electric vehicle is one of the most prominent decisive factors for a person willing to buy an electric vehicle. In this paper an algorithm is developed to estimate the load carried by the truck or passengers in case of a bus and accordingly switch between ECO, ECO+, Normal, Power, and Power+ modes. This is similar to the ECO/Power switches available in the vehicles, but here auto switching is done to reduce driver dependability and allow vehicle to operate in 5 different modes without driver intervention. Optimum utilization of available torque is done for efficient operation of the vehicle in all load and road conditions. The model based software development using MATLAB Simulink is used to develop an algorithm which will switch to Power or Power+ torque mode if the vehicle is fully laden or if the vehicle is going on a steep hill, whereas the algorithm will switch to ECO+ or ECO mode if the vehicle is empty or carrying less load.
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