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Training / Education

Development and Practice of Airborne Electronic Hardware Based on DO-254

2024-08-27
This course is offered in China only and presented in Mandarin Chinese. The course materials are bilingual (English and Chinese). Participants in this course comprehensive understanding of the DO-254 standard including how the development of airborne electronic hardware (AEH) and the development of the aircraft system are related. It addresses the key objectives, activities, and generated data of the AEH lifecycle and presents common problems in the application of DO-254 and how to prevent them. This course also includes current AEH certification requirements and interprets some of the difficulties in gaining compliance approval.
Training / Education

DO-178C Advanced Training

2024-06-12
This course is offered in China only and presented in Mandarin Chinese. The course materials are bilingual (English and Chinese). Participants deepen the understanding of the standard and build on how software engineers, inspectors, and DERs can comply with the standard's objectives. Practitioners engage with the implications and rationales of DO-178C in order to effectively tackle real worked applications.
Technical Paper

Aerospace Vehicle Motion Simulation with Real-Time Telemetry Data

2024-06-01
2024-26-0483
In any aerospace mission, after the vehicle has taken off, the visual is lost and the information about its current state is only through the sensor data telemetered in real-time. Very often, this data is difficult to perceive and analyze. In such cases, a 3D, near to real representation of the data can immensely improve the understanding of the current state of mission and can aid in real-time decision making if possible. Generally, any aerospace vehicle carries onboard an inertial system along with other sensors, which measures the position and attitude of the vehicle. This data is communicated to ground station. The received telemetry data is encoded as bytes and sent as packets through the network using the Universal Datagram Protocol (UDP).  The transmitted data is often available in a very low frequency, which is not desirable for a smooth display. It is therefore necessary to interpolate the data between intervals based on the time elapsed since last rendered frame.
Technical Paper

Fast Coupled Load Analysis through Reanalysis Technique: Formulation and Demonstration on Sample Problems

2024-06-01
2024-26-0459
In a typical Launch Vehicle (LV), dynamic responses due to various flight events are estimated through Coupled Load Analysis (CLA) where the launch vehicle is coupled with a spacecraft. A launch vehicle is subjected to various loads during its flight due to engine thrust depletion / shut-off, thrust oscillation, wind and gust, maneuvering loads. In aerospace industry a standard CLA is performed by generating the mathematical model of launch vehicle and coupling it with reduced mathematical model of satellite and applying the boundary conditions. A CLA is a time consuming process as several flight instances and load cases need to be considered along with generation of structural dynamic model at each time instants. For every new mission, the satellites are mission specific whereas the launch vehicle and the loads remain unchanged. To take advantage of this fact, a new method called “Fast CLA through Reanalysis technique” is proposed in the present paper.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Cavitation in a Flow through GERotor Pump

2024-06-01
2024-26-0449
A gerotor pump is a positive displacement pump consisting of inner and outer rotors, with axis of inner rotor offset from axis of outer rotor. Both rotors rotate about their respective axes. The volume between the rotors changes dynamically, due to which suction and compression occurs. A gerotor pump may be subject to erosion due to cavitation. This paper details about the CFD methodology that has been used to capture cavitation bubbles which might form during the operation of gerotor pump. A full scale (3D) transient CFD model for gerotor pump has been developed using commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT. The most challenging part of this CFD flow modeling is to create a dynamic volume mesh that perfectly represents the dynamically changing rotor fluid volume of the gerotor pump. Two different approaches have been used to model this dynamic mesh analysis in the Ansys Fluent tool - one method by using the traditional UDF script and, another method by using Python automation script.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Terminal Velocity Measurement System for Descending Modules

2024-06-01
2024-26-0438
Gaganyaan programme is India's prestigious human space exploration endeavour. During the re-entry of the spacecraft, achieving the minimum terminal velocity is paramount to ensure the crew's safety upon landing. Therefore, acquiring accurate in-flight velocity data is essential for comprehensively understanding the landing dynamics and facilitating post-flight data analysis and validation. Moreover, terminal velocity plays a pivotal role in the qualification of parachute systems during platform-drop tests where the objective is to minimize the terminal velocity for safe impact. Terminal velocity also serves as a critical design parameter for the crew seat attenuation system. In addition to terminal velocity, it is equally necessary to characterize the horizontal velocities acting on the decelerating body due to various factors such as parachute sway and wind drift. This data also plays a central role in refining our systems for future enhancements.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection in Machine Bearings using Deep Learning - LSTM

2024-06-01
2024-26-0473
In today's industrial sphere, machines are the key supporting various sectors and their operations. Over time, due to extensive usage, these machines undergo wear and tear, introducing subtle yet consequential faults that may go unnoticed. Given the pervasive dependence on machinery, the early and precise detection of these faults becomes a critical necessity. Detecting faults at an early stage not only prevents expensive downtimes but also significantly improves operational efficiency and safety standards. This research focuses on addressing this crucial need by proposing an effective system for condition monitoring and fault detection, leveraging the capabilities of advanced deep learning techniques. The study delves into the application of five diverse deep learning models—LSTM, Deep LSTM, Bi LSTM, GRU, and 1DCNN—in the context of fault detection in bearings using accelerometer data. Accelerometer data is instrumental in capturing vital vibrations within the machinery.
Technical Paper

Aero-Engine Fastened Structural Components: An Investigation into Impact Induced Three-Dimensional Dynamic Fracture Mechanism

2024-06-01
2024-26-0414
Fastener joints play a critical role within aircraft engine structures by connecting vital structural members and withstanding various load scenarios, including impact occurrences like foreign object damage (FOD) on engine nacelles. The precise modeling and simulation of fastener joint behavior under dynamic loads are pivotal to ensuring their structural integrity and functionality. Simulation is essential for minimizing costly experiments in evaluating the challenging design aspect of containing FOD. Prior investigations on fastener joints have predominantly focused on quasi-static or in-plane dynamic loads. This study introduces a comprehensive methodology to simulate the impact dynamics of fastener joints, accommodating both in-plane and out-of-plane loads. The approach employs a fully self-consistent 3D viscoplastic finite element formulation-based simulation using a newly developed code.
Technical Paper

Development of the Smallest & Lightest 60A Aerospace Contactor

2024-06-01
2024-26-0409
Electromechanical Power Contactors are widely used in the Power Distribution units of large commercial & military aircrafts to control the different power sources. In aerospace applications the SWaP (size, weight, and power consumption) is very important since the available space is limited, the weight contributes to higher fuel consumption along with the requirement of high-power electrical sources for catering the high-power requirements. Since more than 100 contactors are used in a single aircraft even a small saving in SWaP leads to huge benefits. Managing the SWaP constraints along with the Harsh environmental and thermal requirements associated with Aerospace applications is a major bottleneck for futuristic aerospace transportation.
Technical Paper

Study of Different Designs of Chevrons for Effective Noise Reduction in Jet Engines

2024-06-01
2024-26-0408
Due to their remarkable efficiency and efficacy, chevrons have emerged as a prominent subject of investigation within the Aviation Industry, primarily aimed at mitigating aircraft noise levels and achieving a quieter airborne experience. Extensive research has identified the engine as the primary source of noise in aircraft, prompting the implementation of chevrons within the engine nozzle. These chevrons function by inducing streamwise vortices into the shear layer, thereby augmenting the mixing process and resulting in a noteworthy reduction of low-frequency noise emissions. Our paper aims to conduct a comparative computational analysis encompassing seven distinct chevron designs and a design without chevrons. The size and configuration of the chevrons with the jet engine nacelle were designed to match the nozzle diameter of 100.48mm and 56.76mm, utilizing the advanced SolidWorks CAD modeling software.
Technical Paper

Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Seal Drag using Variety of Different Fluids

2024-06-01
2024-26-0423
The present study discusses about the determination of the Seal drag force in the application where elastomeric seal is used with metallic interface in the presence of different fluids. An analytical model was constructed to predict the seal drag force and experimental test was performed to check the fidelity of the analytical model. A Design of Experiment (DoE) was utilized to perform experimental test considering different factors affecting the Seal drag force. Statistical tools such as Test for Equal Variances and One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to draw inferences for population based on samples tested in the DoE test. It was observed that Glycol based fluids lead to lubricant wash off resulting into increased seal drag force. Additionally, non-lubricated seals tend to show higher seal drag force as compared to lubricated seals. Keywords: Seal Drag, DoE, ANOVA
Technical Paper

The Effect of Excessive Thermo-Mechanical Stress on the Performance of High-Pressure Hose Assemblies used under Flexing Motion

2024-06-01
2024-26-0427
A typical high-pressure hose assembly consists of hose made with synthetic polymer braids and Teflon tube crimped with metallic fittings. These hose assemblies are mainly used for aircraft landing gear application considering its high-pressure sustenance and better flexibility. The proposed study investigates the effect of thermo-mechanical stress generated due to cyclic soaking and flexibility testing at thermostatic subzero (-65°F) and high temperature (+275°F) on performance of high-pressure hose assembly. This effect is further studied through hose tear-down which was envisioned to investigate the hose layer degradation and focused on changes in inner PTFE tube, which ultimately leads to product performance issues. Keywords: braids, tear down analysis, thermo-mechanical, inter-layer abrasion.
Technical Paper

Elastomeric Swaging Finite Element Analysis Methodology to Evaluate Structural Integrity of Internal Swaged Joints

2024-06-01
2024-26-0428
In applications demanding high performance under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, a range of Mechanically Attached Fittings (MAFs) is offered by various Multinational Corporations (MNCs). These engineered fittings have been innovatively designed to meet the rigorous requirements of the aerospace industry, offering a cost-effective and lightweight alternative to traditional methods such as brazing, welding, or other mechanically attached tube joints. One prominent method employed for attaching these fittings to tubing is through Internal Swaging, a mechanical technique. This process involves the outward formation of rigid tubing into grooves within the fitting. One of the methods with which this intricate operation is achieved is by using a drawbolt - expander assembly within an elastomeric swaging machine.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Approach for Measuring Data and Control Coupling b/w Software Components: Addressing the Challenges of DO-178C Compliance, Verification and Certification

2024-06-01
2024-26-0464
Software certification guidelines, such as RTCA DO-178C, mandate the analysis of data and control coupling (DC/CC) in safety-critical avionics software using requirement-based testing. The intention of this analysis is to ensure correctness in the interactions and dependencies between software components. The shift from confirming the coupling (as in DO-178B) to verifying the exercising of the coupling (as introduced in DO-178C) transitions the DC/CC objective from an analytical exercise against the test design to a measurement exercise against the test execution. Current methodologies for measuring Data Coupling and Control Coupling (DC/CC) rely on source code instrumentation, which embeds code to record coverage information during requirements-based testing. However, this approach has significant drawbacks. Primarily, it necessitates executing tests on both the instrumented and non-instrumented versions of the code, ensuring their outputs match.
Training / Education

AS9100 and IA9100 Understanding the Requirements

2024-05-20
Individuals responsible for quality management system (QMS) implementation, preparation, realization, and auditing to the AS9100:2016 standard series for Aviation, Space, and Defense (ASD) require an understanding of International Aerospace Quality Group (IAQG) ASD standards requirements. When ASD standards are implemented and correctly maintained, utilizing the process approach, managing risks, and proactively identifying opportunities its use results in improved performance. An understanding of Certification Body requirements will have a direct impact on the outcome of the QMS audit as companies utilize AS9100 Rev. D.
Technical Paper

Numerical Approach for the Characterization of the Venting Process of Cylindrical Cells Under Thermal Runaway Conditions

2024-05-06
2024-01-2900
The increasing awareness on the harmful effects on the environment of traditional Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) is driving the industry toward cleaner powertrain technologies such as battery-driven Electric Vehicles. Nonetheless, the high energy density of Li-Ion batteries can cause strong exothermic reactions under certain conditions that can lead to catastrophic results, called Thermal Runaway (TR). Hence, a strong effort is being placed on understanding this phenomena and increase battery safety. Specifically, the vented gases and their ignition can cause the propagation of this phenomenon to adjancent batteries in a pack. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are employed to predict this venting process in a LG18650 cylindrical battery. The ejection of the generated gases was considered to analyze its dispersion in the surrounding volume through a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach.
Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2024-05-01
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and videos provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and  analyze physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
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