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Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2021-09-01
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and video provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and in analyzing physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
Training / Education

Introduction to DO-178C

2021-05-03
The international standard titled DO-178C - Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification is the primary standard for commercial avionics software development. This standard provides recommendations for the production of airborne systems and equipment software. Compliance with the objectives of DO-178C is the primary means for meeting airworthiness requirements and obtaining approval of software used in civil aviation products. This two-day seminar will introduce attendees to industry best practices for real-world software development and how to avoid common DO-178C mistakes.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Training / Education

DO-178C Advanced Training

2020-10-14
With the development of Chinese civil aviation industry, more and more people realized the importance of airborne software. During the certification process of previous ARJ21 aircraft, airborne software had captured many concerns. Nowadays the certification process of C919 aircraft has also reached its peak after its maiden flight. In this context, learning how to correctly understand and strictly meet the objectives DO-178C becomes very essential for the people who is developing or is going to develop airborne software.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Real-World Application of Variable Pedal Feeling Using an Electric Brake Booster with Two Motors

2020-10-05
2020-01-1645
A new type of electric brake booster, which can control brake pedal feeling completely with software, has been developed to explore how a brake system can be used to differentiate and personalize vehicles. In the future, vehicles may share an increasing amount of hardware and rely more heavily on software to differentiate between models. Car sharing, vehicle subscriptions, and other new business models may create a new emphasis on personalization of vehicles that may be achieved most cost effectively using software. This new brake booster controls brake pedal force and brake pressure independently based on the brake pedal stroke so that the pedal feeling is completely defined by software. The booster uses two electric motors and one master cylinder. One electric motor controls pedal force and provides an assist force that amplifies the force that the driver applies to the brake pedal.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Approach for the Assessment of Paths in Pass-by Maneuver

2020-09-30
2020-01-1550
Current vehicle regulations demand for a challenging decrease in the overall exterior noise as a benefit for the health of citizens and road users. New limits have been implemented in UN R51.03 (based on ISO 362-1:2015) to reduce the emitted noise both at constant speed and in full load so as to cover most of the real urban driving conditions. In order to achieve those targets the carmakers have to refine the trim of their vehicle and an experimental approach can take place too late. This paper shows a method for the pass by noise simulation exploiting the numerical transfer functions and a library of experimentally characterized sources with the aim to reduce the noise and find out a better tradeoff between costs and effectiveness of the modifications. Moreover a simple software tool for the treatment of the data and to ease the workflow has been created and used for the rank assessment of the different paths.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

2020-09-30
2020-01-1575
Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for a vehicle OEM, despite the fact that the development of the audio system is often left to a specialized supplier. Especially the questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The long term goal is to enable performing subjective evaluation of sound in a virtual car, and integrating audio evaluation in the NVH simulator. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications.
Technical Paper

Effective Method for Active Sound Design

2020-09-30
2020-01-1539
In modern vehicle acoustics, Active Sound Design (ASD) is a popular method to enhance the interior sound perception of a vehicle. In vehicles with a traditional internal combustion engine, the load dependency of the sound can be increased to give better dynamic feedback. Annoying small-band resonances can be attenuated by boosting the surrounding frequency content, and downsized-engines can be made to sound like the larger ones from former days. However, once a characteristic sound is designed for a specific vehicle, it is a tedious process to transfer this lead-sound to derivatives with a deviating equipment (e.g. same model but different exhaust or audio system). So far, sound designers must adapt the ASD-dataset manually – usually this takes several loops of measuring the car’s interior sound on a track and adjusting the ASD-settings back in the office.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hybrid Polyamide Composites for Replacement of Metallic Parts

2020-09-25
2020-28-0423
Over the past few decades, the world is looking for a better replacement option for metals. Polymers with reinforcements are finding their way deep inside in most of the engineering application because of its lightweight and superior properties. The aim of this study is to investigate hybrid polymer composite polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with glass fibre and Poly tetra fluro ethylene. The reinforcement was varied as 10, 20, 30wt% of Glass Fibre, while fixed quantity of Poly tetra fluro ethylene (PTFE) as 5wt % was taken for hybrid composites preparation. The virgin and hybrid composite specimen were prepared under optimal process parametric conditions through the use of injection moulding techniques and test samples were produced as per ASTM standards. The response of physical properties such as density and various Mechanical testing like Hardness, Tensile Strength, impact and flexural test were carried out and noted.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on Biogas Production from Waste Press Mud and Cow Dung under Anaerobic Condition

2020-09-25
2020-28-0467
Anaerobic digestion of textile wastes under mesophilic conditions were conducted in batch mode with aim of investigating the bio-methane evolution with an initial solid mass of cow dung – 2 kg, cotton and water in 3:1 ratio and press mud is use in the ratio 3:1 with water were evaluated subsequently for 7 weeks (42 days).The highest production of biogas is noted as 3 m3 in fourth week and the higher production of biogas due to press mud is noted as 0.49 in the fifth week.Carbon dioxide is produced as bi product in this bio digestion process. Highest production rate of methane,biogas and carbon dioxide are in their fourth week. Through this experiment 65%-75% of bio gas is collected by the fourth week.
Technical Paper

Free Vibrational Characteristics of Dual Side Nd: YAG Laser Welded Stainless Steel 304 joints Reinforced with Al2O3 Micro Powder Particles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0393
Nd: YAG Laser Welding Process (LWP) is the most efficient method commonly used for the joining of different kinds of materials, whether it can be a sheet or plate.LWP in general,uses high power density, frequency and travel speed or feed rate as primary process parameters in order to perform a joining process across the metals. This paper investigates the effect on free vibrational characteristics for Stainless Steel 304 (SS 304) joints which are reinforced with Al2O3 micro particles processed by dual side (welding performed on the top and bottom surface of sheets) Nd: YAG LWP. The inclusion of micro particles was inserted directly across the weld pool region, by fabricating drills with a constant gap between each drilled holes. Totally 12 samples were fabricated with different laser power, travel speed and by keeping the frequency level as constant for all the experiments.
Technical Paper

Optical surface roughness evaluation of ground specimens using speckle line images

2020-09-25
2020-28-0514
A well-established method of surface roughness measurement is of stylus-based. The filtering effect of the stylus tip is the major lacuna of the process. So in the present study, a vision based 100% inspection procedure is proposed for the characterisation of ground specimens. A CMOS camera, and monochromatic line laser source were used for capturing speckle line images of the ground specimens. Signal vectors were generated from each of the surface images of ground specimens using MATLAB software. On the other hand the roughness of the ground specimens, particularly the Ra & Rda were computed using a stylus instrument. It was found that standard deviation and kurtosis having good correlation with the image pixel intensity of the signal vectors with the correlation coefficient of 0.96 & 0.89 for Ra and 0.86 & 0.82 for Rda respectively. So we conclude that the speckle line images can be used for in-situ surface roughness evaluation of the ground specimens.
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