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Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2022-09-21
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and video provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and in analyzing physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
Training / Education

LIDAR for ADAS and Autonomous Sensing

2022-04-13
.Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) and autonomous vehicle technologies have disrupted the traditional automotive industry with potential to increase safety and optimize the cost of car ownership. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensing, a sensing method that detects objects and maps their distances, is seeing rapid growth and adoption in the industry. However, the sensor requirements and system architecture options continue to evolve. This course will provide the foundation on which to build LIDAR technologies in automotive applications.
Training / Education

Infrared Camera for ADAS and Autonomous Sensing

2022-04-06
Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) and autonomous vehicle technologies have disrupted the traditional automotive industry with potential to increase safety and optimize the cost of car ownership. Among the challenges are those of sensing the environment in and around the vehicle. Infrared camera sensing is seeing a rapid growth and adoption in the industry. The applications and illumination architecture options continue to evolve. This course will provide the foundation on which to build near infrared camera technologies for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Driving Behaviour Analysis Software for Data-Driven Path Planning Functionalities for Automated Vehicles

2022-03-29
2022-01-0218
Autonomous driving is currently one of the most challenging Artificial Intelligence (AI) problems as it requires combination of state-of-the-art solutions in multiple areas including computer vision, sensor fusion, control theory and software engineering. Deep learning has been pivotal to solving some of these problems, especially in computer vision. This enabled some autonomous vehicle companies started leveraging the benefits of deep learning for creating smooth, natural, human-like motion planning systems. In particular, the plethora of driving data captured from modern cars is a key enabler for training data-driven path planning systems. , Developing deep learning-powered systems relies heavily on big and high-quality data required for training of the models, in which the intrinsic statistics of the data that the model is trained on can result in different agent behavior in different scenarios.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Damage of Trim Dies Manufactured or Reconditioned by Different Routes

2022-03-29
2022-01-0245
The compression fatigue behavior of sheet metal trimming die is studied. The trim dies were manufactured or reconditions through different fabrication processes and heat treatment conditions. An accelerated lab testing method is developed to evaluate die damage resistance under compressive cyclic load applied at the tool edge, analogous to sheet metal trimming die operation. The metal removal volume at the sheared edges were measured by image processing to quantify the degree of fatigue damage as a function of loading cycle number. The fatigue microstructural damage were examined with optical and scanning electron microscopies. The simulated die performances are compared among different die processing routes. A phenomenological trim die damage rate model in Paris law form was obtained and tuned with experimental data for tool life prediction.
Technical Paper

A study on editing method of road load spectrum of automobile rubber isolator using time-frequency domain methods

2022-03-29
2022-01-0272
In order to enhance the efficiency of durability testing of automobile parts, a time-frequency domain accelerated editing method of road load time series of rubber mount on powertrain was discussed. Based on Stockwell Transform method and Accumulative Power Spectral Density, a new time-frequency domain accelerated editing method (ST-APSD) was proposed. The accumulative power spectral density was obtained by ST of the load time series signal of automobile powertrain rubber mounting force which is acquired by the real vehicle in the test field. Based on the accumulative power spectral density, the threshold value was proposed to identify and delete the small damage load fragments, and then the acceleration spectrum was obtained.
Technical Paper

Technical Keynote: Durability Validation for Variable Vehicle Usage

2022-03-29
2022-01-0255
Durability engineering for vehicles is about relating real operational loading to the actual strength of the product and its components. In the first part of this presentation, we show how to calculate failure probabilities and safety factors based on the load and strength distributions. We discuss the uncertainty within the estimations, which is considerably large in case of extremely small failure probabilities as required for safety critical components. In the second part, we focus on modelling and simulating the loads based on real vehicle usage, such that the resulting statistics allows to understand and quantify the usage variability. The idea is, to simulate thousands of vehicle life spans of, say, 300.000 km or 15.000 h of operation each. The input data for such simulations typically consists of a combination of geographic data (like road network, topography, road conditions, traffic data, and points of interest) and properly segmented rich data from measurement campaigns.
Technical Paper

A fatigue life prediction method of rubber material for Automobile vibration isolator under road load spectrum

2022-03-29
2022-01-0253
Automobile rubber isolator was subjected to random load cycle for a long time in the service process, and its main rubber material for vibration isolation was prone to fatigue failure. Since the traditional Miner damage theory overlooked the load randomness, it had a prediction error problem. In order to improve the prediction accuracy of rubber fatigue life, the traditional Miner damage theory was modified by random uncertainty theory to predict the rubber fatigue life under random load. Firstly, the rubber dumbbell-shaped test column, which was vulcanized from rubber materials commonly used in vibration isolators, was taken as the research object. The uniaxial fatigue test of rubber under different strain amplitudes and strain mean values was carried out. Then the fatigue characteristic curve of rubber with equivalent strain amplitude as the damage parameter was established.
Technical Paper

Development of FE modeling Procedures for Laser Welded Aluminum Structures in An Electric Vehicle Battery Module and Validation by Test Data

2022-03-29
2022-01-0317
High strength and thin materials are widely adopted in modern electric vehicles for lightweight design to achieve high energy efficiency. For battery modules, 5000 and 6000 aluminum are typically utilized as a structural material with a thickness range between 1 to 5 mm. Laser welding is one of the most optimum welding tools for joining such a thin material due to its unique advantages, e.g., high welding speed, high accuracy, high energy yet the smallest possible heat affect zone, etc. This paper aims to develop a simplified yet effective FE modeling procedure to simulate the laser welding effects on the aluminum structures used in electric vehicle battery modules. A sequentially-coupled thermo-mechanical analysis procedure is developed to determine the softened zone size for aluminum weldments. Then a tie-rupture weld model incorporates the softened zone to predict the weld failure strength.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Unscented Kalman Filter Estimation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0294
High-speed vehicle is prone to instability under bad road conditions, causing many safety accidents such as tail-flicking and overturning. Stability control could assist vehicle to drive safely and stably by adjusting the additional yaw moment. However, most of the existing stability control strategies directly invoke the information of the sideslip angle of the centroid that is difficult to obtain on the vehicle, and carry out complex controller design, which deviates from the actual application. In order to achieve a complete set of stability control architecture oriented to practical applications, this paper designs a hierarchical vehicle stability control strategy based on differential braking and state estimation technology.
Technical Paper

Monolithic Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) substrate coated with CeO2-MnOx nanorods catalysts for soot oxidation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0547
Abstract Noble metal based Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are efficient aftertreatment devices to reduce the PM emissions of diesel engine at present. Because of the high-cost of noble metal, it is necessary to develop base metal soot combustion catalyst. In this work, CeO2-MnOx nanoparticles and nanorods catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation method using different precipitant. The crystal morphology of CeO2-MnOx nanomaterials is identified by a scanning electron microscope. The nitrogen physisorption and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction results suggest that CeO2-MnOx nanorods has smaller specific surface area and greater redox capacity than CeO2-MnOx nanoparticles. The temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) tests were performed to evaluate the catalytic activity of the catalysts for soot oxidation. Results show that the CeO2-MnOx nanorods catalyst exhibits higher soot oxidation activity than CeO2-MnOx nanoparticles.
Technical Paper

Rollover and near-rollover kinematics during evasive steer maneuvers

2022-03-29
2022-01-0855
We present 6-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) kinematic data from two SUVs during evasive steer maneuvers that did and did not result in rollovers. The vehicles were instrumented with a GPS speed sensor, tri-axial accelerometers, tri-axial angular rate sensors, and a steering wheel angle sensor. Drone-based and land-based video cameras recorded all tests. Six degree of freedom position/orientation data were extracted from the video using match moving techniques with 3D constraints from laser scans of the test site and vehicles as described in our previous SAE paper (SAE 2020-01-0272). The initial speeds varied from 100 to 124 km/h and the steering input during the tests were similar. We examine the magnitude and timing of the vehicle pre-roll kinematics to identify differences between the roll and non-roll events. We also present the 6DOF kinematics of the rollovers themselves. This study provides valuable insight into factors that predict roll initiation during evasive steer maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Design of Engine mount bracket for impact load requirement

2022-03-29
2022-01-0758
The primary function of a powertrain mounting bracket is to support the powertrain system in all road conditions. Since it is impossible to change the supporting locations and types of support at a later stage of the development after the powertrain is packaged, the mounting brackets must be verified for all kinds of requirements like NVH, crash, durability and impact strength at the early design stage. Generally, all car manufacturers ensure powertrain mount bracket design through CAE against road load data (RLD), corresponding damage for cumulative strain or stress against specified service life requirements. However, it is challenging to simulate the impact load through CAE, which requires highly complex input data. The energy absorption characteristics of the powertrain mounting bracket are mainly influenced by two variables, the material and the design. Though a bracket may be sound in design for durability, there is a chance of failure due to impact loading.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Frequency Response Using Nyquist Plots

2022-03-29
2022-01-0753
Nyquist plots are a classical means to visualize a complex vibration frequency response function. By graphing the real and imaginary parts of the response, the dynamic behavior in the vicinity of resonances is emphasized. This allows insight into how modes are coupling, and also provides a means to separate the modes. Mathematical models such as Nyquist analysis are often embedded in frequency analysis hardware. While this speeds data collection, it also removes this visually intuitive tool from the engineer’s consciousness. The purpose of this paper is to review the fundamentals of Nyquist plots and their application to structural vibration. The behavior of a single degree of freedom system will be shown to be well described by a circle on its Nyquist plot. This observation allows simple visual examination of the response of a continuous system, and the determination of quantities such as uncoupled natural frequencies, modal damping factors, and uncoupled modes shapes.
Technical Paper

Estimating the Workload of Driving Using Video Clips As Anchors

2022-03-29
2022-01-0805
As new technology is added to vehicles and traffic congestion increases, there is concern that drivers will be overloaded. Accordingly, there has been considerable interest in assessing driver workload. There are many ways this can be done, with subjective assessments using the NASA Task Loading Index (TLX) being most popular. Unfortunately, TLX is unanchored, so there is no way to compare TLX values between studies, limiting the value of those studies. As an alternative, a method was created to anchor overall workload ratings. To apply the method, 24 subjects rated the workload of clips of forward scenes collected while driving on limited access roads in relation to 2 looped anchor clips. Those clips corresponded to Level of Service (LOS) A and E (light and heavy traffic) from those roads and were assigned values of 2 and 6 on an open-ended scale.
Technical Paper

The Gods' Light: A Novel Full Factorial Light Environment Control System with Vision System & Dark Photonic Channel Illuminant for Means of Transportation

2022-03-29
2022-01-0803
Imagination is a real factor in scientific research. One of the most important elements of productive scientific research is to find out the right direction & clear goal. Take automobile lighting as an example, daylight lighting is generally acceptable for driving safety. So, therefore, one of the effective research methods to first simulate and approximate the daytime light environment as much as possible by vehicle lighting at night is the right direction and a clear goal. The three golden principles of safe driving are concentration, watch carefully, and prevent in advance. All of these safety rules strictly require the driver to take everything around the vehicle as a safe driving factor.
Technical Paper

Luminance Estimation with Exemplar Digital Camera

2022-03-29
2022-01-0804
Mapping the luminance values of a visual scene is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals, and lighting experts. Previous work has shown that pixel intensity captured by consumer-grade digital still cameras can be calibrated to estimate luminance. Suway and Suway presented a methodology for estimating luminance from digital images and video of a scene. This method requires the capture of dark images close in time to the capture of the image that will be used to estimate luminance. Additionally, Suway’s method requires the specific camera and lens combination used to be calibrated for luminance estimation. In this paper, the authors present results of estimating luminance with an exemplar camera and taking exemplar dark images. The analysis was completed with the commercially available luminance estimation software, Nitere.
Technical Paper

Virtual Verification of Decision Making and Motion Planning Functionalities for Automated Vehicles in Urban Edge Case Scenarios

2022-03-29
2022-01-0841
Traffic congestion, road accidents, environmental pollution and driving stress are usually associated with road transportation in dense urban environments. The widespread deployment of automated vehicles has the potential to eliminate these issues; autonomous vehicles would allow for the optimization of traffic flow, the reduction of road accidents and environmental pollution, and the elimination of driving stress. Despite recent advancements in Automated Driving Systems (ADS), the deployment of such systems in dense urban environments still faces a challenging problem: in comparison to motorway or rural driving, urban environments contain a significantly greater number of traffic participants. This makes it difficult to verify the Safety Of The Intended Functionality (SOTIF) across the entire Operational Design Domain (ODD). One approach to solve this problem is to virtually evaluate and verify the safety of the ADS using simulation tools.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Mobile Phone Lidar Capture and Established Ground based 3d Scanning Methodologies.

2022-03-29
2022-01-0832
Ground-based LiDAR using FARO 3d scanners and other brands of scanners have been shown to be an accurate way to capture the geometry of accident scenes, accident vehicles and exemplar vehicles, as well as corresponding evidence from these sources such as roadway gouge marks, vehicle crush depth, and burn areas. However, ground-based scanners do require expensive and larger equipment to be brought on-site, as well as other materials that may be required depending on the scenario. New technologies, such as Apple’s mobile phone LiDAR capture, have been released recently in their newer model phones, and they offer a chance to obtain similar results but with less cumbersome and less expensive equipment. This technology embeds photos with lidar data that can then be exported into point cloud data using different applications available in the app store. This paper will investigate the accuracy of Apple mobile phone LiDAR on obtaining geometry from multiple exemplar vehicles.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Validation of 360-Degree Camera Use in Photogrammetry

2022-03-29
2022-01-0829
Accident scene data obtained from photographs and videos are vital material for forensic analysts. They allow to precisely determine the orientation and location of evidence as seen on such images. For that reason, the term digital evidence was adopted and is commonly used among analysts in conjunction with retro-projection methods as an aid to reconstruct the events and inputs leading up to the investigation in question. Photogrammetry is a retro-projection method commonly used by analysts to match scene photographs with calibrated control points obtained from three-dimensional point cloud data collected at the subject site and visualized on the scene images. From this merger, the photographs allow for the determination of the point at which the camera was positioned that took the subject image. In general, the point cloud data allows for increased accuracy during the photogrammetry process.
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