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Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

2024-09-12
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. The goal of this two-day course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Knockdown Factor Estimation of Stiffened Cylinders under Combined Loads - A Numerical Study

2024-06-01
2024-26-0417
Airframe section of rockets, missiles and launch vehicles are typically cylindrical in shape. The cylindrical shell is subjected to high axial load and an external pressure during its operation. The design of cylinders subjected to such loads is generally found to be critical in buckling. To minimize the weight of cylinders, it is typically stiffened with rings and stringers on the inner diameter to increase the buckling load factor. Conventionally the buckling load estimated by analytical or numerical means is multiplied by an empirical factor generally called Knockdown factor (kdf) to get the critical buckling load. This factor is considered to account for the variation between theory and experiment and is specified by handbooks or codes. In aerospace industry, NASA SP 8007 is commonly followed and it specifies the kdf as a lower bound fit curve for experimental data .
Technical Paper

Configuration and Design of Mobile Checkout System for Ground Testing of Winged Body Reusable Launch Vehicle

2024-06-01
2024-26-0454
Abstract Unlike conventional launch vehicles the winged body reusable launch vehicle needs to be tested and evaluated for its functionality during the pre-flight preparation at the runway. The ground based checkout systems for the avionics and actuators performance testing during pre-flight evaluation and actuation are not designed for rapid movement. The new kind of launch vehicle with conventional rocket motor first-stage and winged body upper-stage demands the system testing at Launchpad and at runway. In the developmental flights of the winged body part of the vehicle, the pre-flight testing needs to be carried out extensively at runway. The safety protocol forbids the permanent structure for hosting the checkout system near runway. The alternative is the development of a rapidly deployable and removable checkout system. A design methodology adopting conventional industrial instrumentation systems and maintaining mobility is presented.
Technical Paper

Structural Loads for Crew Escape System (CES) of Gaganyaan Launch Vehicle During Abort

2024-06-01
2024-26-0453
Abstract : In any human space flight program, safety of the crew is of utmost priority. In case of exigency during atmospheric flight, the crew is safely and quickly rescued from the launch vehicle using Crew escape system. Crew escape system is a crucial part of the Human Space flight vehicle which carries the crew module away from the ascending launch vehicle by firing its rocket motors (Pitch Motor (PM), Low altitude Escape Motor (LEM) and High altitude Escape Motor (HEM)). The structural loads experienced by the crew escape system during the mission abort are severe as the propulsive forces, aerodynamic forces and inertial forces on the vehicle are significantly high. Since the mission abort can occur at anytime during the ascent phase of the launch vehicle, trajectory profiles are generated for abort at every one second interval of ascent flight time considering several combinations of dispersions on various propulsive parameters of abort motors and aero parameters.
Technical Paper

Thermal Analysis of Prismatic Core Sandwich Structural Panel for Hypersonic Application

2024-06-01
2024-26-0422
Hypersonic flight vehicles have potential applications in strategic defence, space missions, and future civilian high-speed transportation systems. However, structural integration has significant challenges due to extreme aero-thermo-mechanical coupled effects. Scramjet-powered air-breathing hypersonic vehicles experience extreme heat loads induced by combustion, shock waves and viscous heat dissipation. An active cooling thermal protection system for scramjet applications has the highest potential for thermal load management, especially for long-duration flights, considering the weight penalty associated with the heavier passive thermal insulation structures. We consider the case of active cooling of scramjet engine structural walls with endothermic hydrocarbon fuel. We have developed a semi-analytical one-dimensional heat transfer model considering a prismatic core single cooling channel segment as a representative volume element (RVE) to analyse larger scale problems.
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