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Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. The goal of this two-day course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Electronic Brake Booster with Fuzzy Logic Control

On one hand, simulation tools are widely used to study and examine new technologies before building prototypes. It is a cost- and time-saver if it is well mathematically modelled and in real-time simulated. On the other hand, the expansion of electric and hybrid vehicle development requested advancing the Electronic Brake Booster (EBB) technologies. In this paper, a simulation tool for the EBB is developed to simulate the performance in real time with a very quick response compared to the previous models with a novel fuzzy logic control (FLC) for the position tracking control. The configuration of the EBB is established, and the system model, including the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a double reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, a reaction disc, and the hydraulic load, is modeled. The load-dependent friction has been compensated by using the Karnopp-friction model. FLC has been used for the control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Brake Heat Capacity Prediction by Machine Learned Friction Coefficient Model and Virtual Wheel Brake Co-Simulation

In recent times, the increasing complexity of systems and diverse customer demands have necessitated highly efficient vehicle development processes. Accurate prediction of vehicle performance through simulation enables the determination of design specifications before building test vehicles, leading to reduced development schedules and costs. Especially with the transition to electrification in the automotive industry and the diversification of mobility businesses, the rear axle load for xEV has increased compared to conventional ICE vehicles. Detailed brake thermal performance predictions are now required not only for the front brake but also for the rear brake. Moreover, scenarios requiring verification, such as alpine, which applies braking severity to xEV with the regenerative braking system, have become more diverse.
Technical Paper

Piston and Guide-Pin Rattle Noise Mitigation in Electro-Mechanical Brake Caliper

The hydraulic brake caliper utilizes pressurized brake fluid to actuate one or multiple pistons generating friction between the brake pads and disc. Calipers are classified into floating and fixed type caliper. Floating caliper slides inboard/outboard direction to apply and release pressure on the outer pad. This type of caliper has rubber or spring components to maintain specific clearance for sliding characteristics. Therefore, caliper rattle noise could occur due to wheel vibrations when the vehicle is driven on unpaved roads or rough surfaces. Rattle noise is particularly pronounced in front calipers positioned closer to the driver and its susceptibility tends to increase with the weight of the caliper. The Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) caliper has gained substantial attention in automotive industry for its advantages features including reduced brake drag, optimized vehicle layout and precise brake control.
Technical Paper

Glow-discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Cr(III) Sealing in Anodized Aluminium-Silicon Alloys for Brake Component

Calipers and pistons for high-end car braking systems are typically realized using anodized Aluminium-Silicon alloys. Indeed, Aluminium-Silicon alloys are light materials with optimal mechanical properties and, when anodized, excellent corrosion and wear resistances. To achieve these top-notch surface properties, the anodizing process is followed by a sealing post-treatment, which significantly improves the corrosion resistance and tunes the tribological properties (e.g., hardness and friction coefficient) of the anodized pieces. Sealing consists in the precipitation of insoluble hydroxides and functional compounds (e.g., corrosion inhibitors) inside the nano-pores of the anodic layer. Nevertheless, sealing might not penetrate through all the nano-porous structure of the anodic layer. Thus, in light of possible post-machining of sealed, anodized components, it appears fundamental to develop a tool to determine the depth penetration of sealing inside the anodic layer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Design Parameters on Thermal Performance of a Vane Type Disc Brake Rotor

The ever-increasing need for effective transportation puts automobile manufacturers in a situation of continuous improvement and innovative safety systems. The brake system of an automobile has always been considered one of the most critical active safety systems. Thermal characteristics of the brake are an important aspect to consider for brake disc durability and performance. The convective cooling of a brake disc is an important factor since design changes in the brake rotor can significantly improve cooling characteristics. The focus of this research is to study and optimize the disc brake rotor for a given heat dissipation rate and predict the effect of various design parameters on the thermal performance of the brake rotor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to validate Limpert’s empirical formulae for convective heat transfer coefficient, which are further used and integrated with suitable inequality and equality constraints to form optimization problems.
Technical Paper

An Archive-based Micro Genetic Algorithm Approach for Optimizing Wheel Bearing Performance and Reducing Friction

Cars and vans are accountable for 14.5% of the total CO2 emissions in the European Union [1], exerting a significant impact on public health and the environment. To align with the climate objectives set by the Council and the European Parliament, the Fit for 55 package encompasses a series of proposals aimed at revising and modernizing EU legislation while introducing new initiatives. The ultimate goal is to ensure that EU policies are in harmony with the climate targets, specifically the EU's aspiration to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels and achieve climate neutrality by 2050.To meet the fleet average emissions targets, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are compelled to reduce emissions from their vehicles by addressing various components.