In engine 30% of the total energy is lost due to the friction between piston ring and cylinder liner due to their constant rubbing motion. A piston that reciprocates at high speeds has piston rings that constantly scrape against the wall leading to high frictional losses within the engine. The engine has to work against this resistance to provide the required power, and hence it will consume more fuel. For this reason, material used for these components is more crucial. Reduction of surface friction between moving parts in order to increase overall efficiency can be achieved by suitable coating. The most commonly used piston rings are coated with chromium layers that are electroplated which is being replaced by chrome plating. Low coefficient of friction (COF) and high wear resistance can be achieved by self-lubricating coating of PTFE and PEEK polymer-based composite coatings.
Considering the advancements in manufacturing industries, which are crucial for economic growth, there is a substantial demand for exploration and analysis of advanced materials, especially alloy materials, to enable efficient utilization of new technologies. Lightweight and high-strength materials, like aluminum alloys, are highly recommended for various applications that necessitate both strength and resistance to corrosion, such as automobile, marine and high-temperature applications. Therefore, there is a significant need to investigate and analyze these materials to facilitate their effective application in manufacturing sectors. This study investigates the machinability of drilling AA6061 using a micro-textured uncoated tool and proposes an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model for investigating the machinability of drilling AA6061 aluminum alloy with a micro-textured uncoated tool.
During investigation of an automotive shock absorber endurance test where it was supposed to last at least 200,000 load cycles but that did not meet the mandatory fatigue requirement. This is because of the failure in the shock absorber shim assembly. This failure was due to Fretting fatigue. Design improvement is carried out to avoid the fretting fatigue phenomenon on the shock absorber shim assembly. Using FEA some analysis is done over the shim assembly to determine the stress region. At last after increasing the shims in the piston important improvement in fatigue life was achieved. This improvement was obtained with simple solution, without effecting the damping forces.
Heat transfer optimization is a crucial aspect of the design process for Formula Student race cars, particularly for the radiator, usually housed in a side pod. For the car to operate at peak performance, a well-designed radiator-sidepod system is essential such that it can dissipate heat generated by the engine faster, for the car to run in optimal performance. Testing the car physically for various radiator-sidepod design iterations is a very difficult task, also considering the costs to manufacture the radiator-sidepod setup. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to simulate and analyze the fluid flow and heat transfer in the setup, and can also find out the impact of changing the parameters of the radiator and sidepod, without any expenditure. It can also consider various environmental factors, which can’t be accounted for in theoretical calculations with ease.
A wide range of engineering sectors, such as aerospace, automobiles, and marine, rely on the use of metal Matrix Composites. Due to its superior properties, such as hardness and strength, Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites are commonly used in various applications. The light weight to high strength ratio, reduced coefficient of friction and wear rate, corrosion resistance, easy to fabricate are some of the important properties of Al hybrid metal matrix composite which can be used in the automobile systems such as piston liners, camshaft, piston, engine body, valve covers. The analysis of the machinability of the composite was also performed. The process of creating a new MMC using a stir casting technique was carried out. It resulted in a better and more reinforced composite than its base materials. The reinforcement materials were fabricated using different weight combinations and process parameters, such as the temperature and time needed for stirring.
This study aims to investigate the effect of hydrogen injection to palm oil biodiesel on a compression ignition (CI) engine's exergy efficiency, while assessing its sustainability index. The tests are performed on a diesel engine with a single cylinder cooled by water and run at a consistent speed of 1500 rpm, with a load range varying from 0.01 kg to 18 kg, and hydrogen injection rates ranging from 4 lpm to 10 lpm. The findings reveal that biodiesel has higher exergetic efficiency when compared to conventional diesel. The biodiesel-run CI engine has an exergetic efficiency of 31.6%, and a sustainability index of 1.236 at the maximum brake power of 5.2 KW. Exergy analysis is conducted for shaft work, cooling water, exhaust gas availability, and entropy generation. The study also investigates the variation in the engine cylinder's peak pressure and heat release rate, as well as the performance metrics of the engine, like brake thermal efficiency and temperature of the exhaust gas.
Titanium alloys are lightweight materials preferably used in transportation due to its high corrosion resistance and thermal strength. Titanium and its alloys are primarily used in internal combustion engine components, such as valves, valve spring, retainers, and connecting rods. Grade 5 applications include aircraft, automobile components, tennis racquets, golf club shafts, ski plates, and bicycles. The goal of this project is to optimise the machining parameters of Wire cut Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) used to machine Ti-6Al-4V (Grade 5) compound with brass wire to achieve the lowest surface roughness and highest material removal rate possible. The L9 orthogonal array is used, with input variables such as pulse-on time (s), pulse-off time (s), and peak current, and output variables such as material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (RA).
Methanol is a suitable alternative fuel to relieve the problem of energy shortage and decrease the emission of greenhouse gases. The effect of direct injection timing of methanol and diesel on the combustion characteristics of a marine diesel engine with bore of 0.21 m was simulated with a 3-dimentional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software AVL-FIRE. The combustion model was set-up and validated by the experimental data from the marine diesel engine. Results show that there are two peaks on the heat release rate (HRR) curves with the normal diesel-methanol combustion process. The first HRR peak is caused by the combustion of diesel. The second HRR peak is resulted from the hybrid combustion process of diesel and methanol. The injection timing of diesel influences the maximum pressure rise rate (PRRmax) and ignition timing.