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Training / Education

Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

2024-09-12
Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. The goal of this two-day course is to introduce engineers and managers to the basic principles of cooling airflow systems for commercial and off-road vehicles.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
Increasingly stringent regulations relating to the emissions of passenger cars and commercial vehicles demand alternative powertrain technologies in order to effectively achieve the climate targets. Hydrogen can play a crucial role as alternative energy carrier regarding the EU targets for CO2-neutral mobility towards 2050. Therefore, it represents a reasonable choice not only for fuel cell powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines (ICE). This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble ICE with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern ICEs.
Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are taking interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. To assure the required low engine out NOx emission to fulfill future legislations the engine should be operated with lean air fuel rations all over the engine map. A challenge following this strategy is to supply sufficient boost pressure for sufficient air mass flow rate to target same power output as the diesel engine. At the same time the transient response improvement is the key to keep NOx emission low also during transient engine operation. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Optimization for Black Box Controls of Internal Combustion Engines using Neural Networks

2024-07-02
2024-01-2995
The calibration of Engine Control Units (ECUs) for road vehicles is challenged by stringent legal and environmental regulations, coupled with reduced development times. The growing number of vehicle variants, sharing similar engines and control algorithms, requires different calibrations. Additionally, these engines feature an increasing number of calibration parameters, along with complex parallel and nested conditions within the software, demanding a significant amount of measurement data during development. The current state-of-the-art logic-level (white box) model-based calibration proves effective but involves considerable effort for model construction and validation. This is often hindered by limited functional documentation, available measurements, and hardware representation capabilities. This article introduces a model-based calibration approach using Neural Networks (black box) for two distinct ECU functional structures with minimal software documentation.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines Using a Modified Wiebe Model

2024-07-02
2024-01-3016
Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe's formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary valve lift on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realising internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behaviour. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
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