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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
Increasingly stringent regulations relating to the emissions of passenger cars and commercial vehicles demand alternative powertrain technologies in order to effectively achieve the climate targets. Hydrogen can play a crucial role as alternative energy carrier regarding the EU targets for CO2-neutral mobility towards 2050. Therefore, it represents a reasonable choice not only for fuel cell powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines (ICE). This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble ICE with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern ICEs.
Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are taking interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. To assure the required low engine out NOx emission to fulfill future legislations the engine should be operated with lean air fuel rations all over the engine map. A challenge following this strategy is to supply sufficient boost pressure for sufficient air mass flow rate to target same power output as the diesel engine. At the same time the transient response improvement is the key to keep NOx emission low also during transient engine operation. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: a 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty truck engines are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy required on-board, in order to achieve a range comparable to that of diesels. This paper considers a commercial 6-cylinder engine with a displacement of 12.8 L, developed in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver more than 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the CNG configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW at 1800 rpm. Maintaining the same combustion chamber design of the last version, a theoretical study is carried out in order to run the engine on Hydrogen, compressed at 700 bar. The study is based on GT-Power simulations, adopting a predictive combustion model, calibrated with experimental results. The study shows that the implementation of a combustion system running on lean mixtures of Hydrogen, permits to cancel the emissions of CO2, while maintaining the same power output of the CNG engine.
Technical Paper

The influence of design operating conditions on engine coolant pump absorption in real driving scenarios.

2024-06-12
2024-37-0015
Reducing CO2 emissions in on-the-road transport is important to limit global warming and follow a green transition towards net zero Carbon by 2050. In a long-term scenario, electrification will be the future of transportation. However, in the mid-term, the priority should be given more strongly to other technological alternatives (e.g., decarbonization of the electrical energy and battery recharging time). In the short- to mid-term, the technological and environmental reinforcement of ICEs could participate in the effort of decarbonization, also matching the need to reduce harmful pollutant emissions, mainly during traveling in urban areas. Engine thermal management represents a viable solution considering its potential benefits and limited implementation costs compared to other technologies. A variable flow coolant pump actuated independently from the crankshaft represents the critical component of a thermal management system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Knockdown Factor Estimation of Stiffened Cylinders under Combined Loads - A Numerical Study

2024-06-01
2024-26-0417
Airframe section of rockets, missiles and launch vehicles are typically cylindrical in shape. The cylindrical shell is subjected to high axial load and an external pressure during its operation. The design of cylinders subjected to such loads is generally found to be critical in buckling. To minimize the weight of cylinders, it is typically stiffened with rings and stringers on the inner diameter to increase the buckling load factor. Conventionally the buckling load estimated by analytical or numerical means is multiplied by an empirical factor generally called Knockdown factor (kdf) to get the critical buckling load. This factor is considered to account for the variation between theory and experiment and is specified by handbooks or codes. In aerospace industry, NASA SP 8007 is commonly followed and it specifies the kdf as a lower bound fit curve for experimental data .
Technical Paper

Validation of a Two-Parameter Controlled Novel Tribometer for Analysing Durability of Piston Ring-Engine Cylinder Tribo-Pair

2024-04-09
2024-01-2067
The wear of the piston ring-cylinder liner system in gasoline engines is inevitable and significantly impacts fuel economy. Utilizing a custom-built linear reciprocating tribometer, this study assesses the wear resistance of newly developed engine cylinder coatings. The custom device offers a cost-effective means for tribological evaluation, optimizing coating process parameters with precise control over critical operational factors such as normal load and sliding frequency. Unlike conventional commercial tribometers, it ensures a more accurate simulation of the engine cylinder system. However, existing research lacks a comprehensive comparative analysis and procedure to establish precision limits for such modified devices. This study evaluates the custom tribometer's repeatability compared to a commercial wear-testing instrument, confirming its potential as a valuable tool for advanced wear testing on engine cylinder samples.
Technical Paper

Development of the New V6 Twin-Turbocharged Engine for Flagship SUV

2024-04-09
2024-01-2095
As part of Nissan’s strategy of electrification and the shift to smart technologies, our powertrain department has two main pillars: zero emissions and ICE Evolution. As a core unit of ICE Evolution, we have developed a brand new 3.5L V6 Twin turbocharged gasoline engine for Nissan’s next generation full-size flagship SUV to deliver luxury and toughness at the highest level. This brand-new engine will be applied to vehicles in all corners of the world and must have strong performance in every corner. More specifically, it has to meet the latest emissions and fuel efficiency regulations, have strong power performance beyond expectation, and provide reliable drivability on rough roads and deserts. To achieve these requirements, the new engine is incorporating many cutting-edge technologies.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Knock Formation in Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Using a Multiple Spark Ignition Approach: An Optical Investigation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2105
Engine knock is a major challenge that limits the achievement of higher engine efficiency by increasing the compression ratio of the engine. To address this issue, using a higher octane number fuel can be a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the propensity for knock and so obtain better engine performance. Methanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be produced from conventional and non-conventional energy resources, which can help reduce pollutant emissions. Methanol has a higher octane number than typically gasolines, which makes it a viable option for reducing knock intensity. This study compared the combustion characteristics of gasoline and methanol fuels in an optical spark-ignition engine using multiple spark plugs. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder four-stroke optical engine. The researchers used a customized metal liner with four circumferential spark plugs to generate multiple flame kernels inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Sparked-Spray Induced Combustion at Ultra-Lean Conditions in a GDI Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2107
Ultra-lean combustion of GDI engine could achieve higher thermal efficiency and lower NOx emissions, but it also faces challenges such as ignition difficulties and low-speed flame propagation. In this paper, the sparked-spray is proposed as a novel ignition method, which employs the spark to ignite the fuel spray by the cooperative timing control of in-cylinder fuel injection and spark ignition and form a jet flame. Then the jet flame fronts propagate in the ultra-lean premixed mixture in the cylinder. This combustion mode is named Sparked-Spray Induced Combustion (SSIC) in this paper. Based on a 3-cylinder 1.0L GDI engine, a 3D simulation model is established in the CONVERGE to study the effects of ignition strategy, compression ratio, and injection timing on SSIC with a global equivalence ratio of 0.50. The results show it is easier to form the jet flame when sparking at the spray front because the fuel has better atomization and lower turbulent kinetic energy at the spray front.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of an Ammonia-Hydrogen Engine under Passive- and Active-Jet Ignition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2109
In the context of carbon neutrality, ammonia is considered a zero-carbon fuel with potential applications in the transportation sector. However, its high ignition energy, low flame speed, and high natural temperature, indicative of low reactivity, make it challenging to be applied as a sole fuel in engines. In such a scenario, the use of another zero-carbon and highly reactive fuel, hydrogen, becomes necessary to enhance the combustion of ammonia. Furthermore, jet ignition, a method known for improving engine combustion performance, may also hold potential for enhancing the combustion performance of ammonia engines. To explore the applicability of jet ignition in engines, this study conducted experimental research on a single-cylinder engine. Two ignition methods were employed: passive jet ignition of premixed ammonia-hydrogen at a compression ratio of 11.5, and active jet ignition of pure ammonia using hydrogen jet flame at a compression ratio of 17.3.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI) Combustion in a Dedicated Hybrid Engine under Stoichiometric Condition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2111
Turbulent jet ignition (TJI) combustion using pre-chamber ignition can accelerate the combustion speed in the cylinder and has garnered growing interest in recent years. However, it is complicated for the optimization of the pre-chamber structure and combustion system. This study investigated the effects of the pre-chamber structure and the intake ports on the combustion characteristics of a gasoline engine through CFD simulation. Spark ignition (SI) combustion simulation was also conducted for comparison. The results showed that the design of the pre-chamber that causes the jet flame colliding with walls severely worsen the combustion, increasing the knocking intendency, and decrease the thermal efficiency. Compared with SI combustion mode, the TJI combustion mode has the higher heat transfer loss and lower unburned loss. The well-optimized pre-chamber can accelerate the flame propagation with knock suppression.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Hydrogen Enrichment and EGR on In-Cylinder Soot and NOx Formation in Dual-Fuel CI-Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2098
To mitigate the NOx emissions from diesel engines, the adoption of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has gained widespread acceptance as a technology. Employing EGR has the drawback of elevating soot emissions. Using hydrogen-enriched air with EGR in a diesel engine (dual-fuel operation), offers the potential to decrease in-cylinder soot formation while simultaneously reducing NOx emissions. The present study numerically investigates the effect of hydrogen energy share and engine load on the formation and emission of soot and NOx from hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel engines. The numerical investigation uses an n-heptane/H2 reduced reaction mechanism with a two-step soot model in ANSYS FORTE. A reduced n-heptane reaction mechanism is integrated with a hydrogen reaction mechanism using CHEMKIN to enhance the accuracy of predicting dual-fuel combustion in a hydrogen dual-fuel engine.
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