Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Various Fractional Order Control Strategies on a PEM Fuel Cell

2024-09-19
2024-28-0094
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are one potential green energy option for fuel cells, which are becoming more and more popular in the energy production industry. Despite the fact that it continues to draw a lot of interest, many obstacles, such as enhancing performance, boosting durability and reducing cost are impeding the PEM fuel cell's commercialization. The performance of the fuel cell is affected by air/hydrogen feed and thus there is a need to regulate the supply manifold pressure at the cathode side of the fuel cell. A substantial amount of power is used when operating at maximum load, and fuel cells may experience oxygen starvation due to inadequate air. Maintaining a quick and adequate air concentration in the fuel cell cathode is essential to avoiding oxygen starvation and maximizing durability.
Technical Paper

Numerical study of catalytic methanation reactions using a kinetic model

2024-09-18
2024-24-0022
The main element for the increase in atmospheric temperature is assumed to be the increase of CO2 concentration. Hence, it is essential to reintegrate the secondary products like H2 and CO2 into the energy supply so that the direct CO2 emission can be reduced. A promising approach for a CO2 neutral production circle is the conversion of CO2 into methane, commonly known as methanation. To make the SNG production a recycling process, the exhaust CO2 emitted by a lignite power plant, a refinery, or a cement production plant can be used as a CO2 source to fully convert the hydrogen/CO2 to methane as done by the Sabatier reaction. The Sabatier reaction is thermodynamically favoured, nevertheless the reaction is limited in kinetics and hence catalysts are needed to achieve acceptable conversion from CO2 into CH4. Hence, to understand the complex methanation process, we thoroughly discuss the CO2 methanation to maximize the methane formation and minimize the CO formation.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Future of Road Freight Transport Under Different Scenarios

2024-09-18
2024-24-0024
Fighting climate change has become a major task worldwide. Alongside the United States and China, Europe is considered as one of the biggest greenhouse gases (GHG) emitters. Therefore, the European Union (EU) has set long term strategies to reduce emissions. One of the key energy sectors to emit greenhouse gases is transportation. In this context, EU has turned its eye toward cutting emissions from the transport sector and has recently put its stamp of approval on a reworked law banning all new sales of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles from 2035. Despite representing only 2% of the vehicles on the road, trucks account for more than a quarter of road transport emissions in the EU and have been increasing every year since 1990.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Sustainable Energy Transition: A System Dynamics Approach for Biodiesel Integration in the Galapagos Islands.

2024-09-18
2024-24-0031
The Galapagos Islands' protected marine reserve heavily relies on fossil fuels, constituting over 80% of its energy supply. This paper introduces a system dynamics model simulation to explore scenarios wherein biodiesel completely replaces fossil fuels as an immediate short-term solution. Biodiesel, acknowledged for its environmental friendliness, serves as a cleaner alternative to traditional diesel. The simulation, utilizing current official data for the Galapagos Islands, interconnects system variables and calculates their equations simultaneously. Our objective is to delineate economic, social, energetic, and environmental conditions favoring biodiesel as the primary fuel over the prevalent fossil fuels. The emphasis lies in achieving a balance between sustaining the energy supply, predominantly reliant on internal combustion engines, and the imperative to promptly provide clean and green energy using existing resources.
Technical Paper

Development of a NG engine predictive simulation model and investigation of engine performances under hydrogen-blended operation

2024-09-18
2024-24-0029
Hydrogen-powered mobility is believed to be crucial in the future, as hydrogen constitutes a promising solution to make up for the non-programmable character of the renewable energy sources. In this context, the hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine represents one of the suitable technical solution for the future sustainable mobility. In a short-term perspective, the development of the green hydrogen production capability and distribution infrastructure do not allow a substantial penetration of pure hydrogen IC engines. For this reason, natural gas – hydrogen blends can represent a first significant step towards decarbonization, also determining a trigger effect on the hydrogen market development. The present paper is focused on the analysis of the combustion and performance characteristics of a production PFI natural gas engine, run on blends with 15% in volume of hydrogen (HCNG).
Technical Paper

EMS optimization of a series-hybrid urban bus with hydrogen-fueled engine accounting for NOx emissions and eco-driving

2024-09-18
2024-24-0009
The need to reduce vehicle-related emissions in the great cities has led to a progressive electrification of urban mobility. For this reason, during the last decades, the powertrain adopted for urban buses has been gradually converted from conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), diesel, or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), to hybrid or pure electric. However, the complete electrification of Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) in the next years looks to be still challenging therefore, a more viable solution to decarbonize urban transport is the hybrid powertrain. In this context, the paper aims to assess, through numerical simulations, the benefits of a series hybrid-electric powertrain designed for an urban bus, in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gases, and pollutants emissions. Particularly, a medium-size Spark Ignition (SI) engine, fueled with pure hydrogen, is considered as a range extender.
Technical Paper

Novel Chemical Kinetics Mechanism for Robust Simulation of Multi-Component Fuel Blends in Engine Conditions

2024-09-18
2024-24-0035
Ammonia, with its significant hydrogen content, offers a practical alternative to pure hydrogen in marine applications and is easier to store due to its higher volumetric energy density. While Ammonia's resistance to auto-ignition makes it suitable for high-compression ratio engines using pre-mixed charge, its low flame speed poses challenges. Innovative combustion strategies, such as dual-fuel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI), leverage secondary high-reactivity fuels like diesel to enhance Ammonia combustion. To address the challenges posed by Ammonia's low flame speed, blending with hydrogen or natural gas (NG) in the low reactivity portion of the fuel mixture is an effective approach. For combustion simulation in engines, it is crucial to develop a chemical kinetics mechanism that accommodates all participating fuels: diesel, Ammonia, hydrogen, and NG. This study aims to propose a kinetics mechanism applicable for the combustion of these fuels together.
Technical Paper

Dual Injection Concept and Lean Burn Characteristics with Methanol on a SI-Engine

2024-09-18
2024-24-0030
To further unlock the potential of methanol, this paper focuses on a dual injection concept in a spark ignition (SI) combustion engine. The combination of port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI) for different fuel types, as well as single and dual fuel applications, such as gasoline for PFI and methanol for DI, has been discussed in the literature. The consideration of a single-fuel dual injection concept with pure methanol is intended to provide information on the characteristics of each injection method and, by combining these, eliminate the disadvantages of one type with the advantages of the other. The research for sustainable alternative fuels for combustion engines was driven by the urgency to meet future emission regulation norms and mitigate climate change and dependency on fossil fuels.
Technical Paper

Machine learning based design of optimal energy management strategy for hydrogen-fueled hybrid vehicle powertrain

2024-09-18
2024-24-0001
The topic of decarbonization involves improvements of hybrid vehicles powertrains design, from fuel type, powertrain components sizing and configuration up to control strategies. To reduce the emission of pollutants due to combustion of traditional fuels, manufacturers are moving towards the use of green fuels, such as green hydrogen. In this context, the series hybrid vehicles demonstrate excellent potential: they can be equipped with hydrogen-fuelled combustion engines as range extenders, which can operate through optimal conditions without suffering extreme transient manoeuvres. A suitable design of the control strategy of vehicle powertrain is mandatory to optimally manage the power split between range extender and battery, considering features and operating limits of both components according to power constraints.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Hydrogen Combustion under Ultra Lean Conditions in a Spark Ignition Research Engine using a Barrier Discharge Igniter

2024-09-18
2024-24-0036
The global push to minimize carbon emissions and the imposition of more rigorous regulations on emissions are driving an increased exploration of cleaner powertrains for transportation. Hydrogen fuel applications in internal combustion engines are gaining prominence due to their zero carbon emissions and favorable combustion characteristics, particularly in terms of thermal efficiency. However, conventional Spark-Ignition (SI) engines are facing challenges in meeting performance expectations while complying with strict pollutant-emission regulations. These challenges arise from the engine's difficulty in handling advanced combustion strategies, such as lean mixtures, attributed to factors like low ignition energy and abnormal combustion events. To address these issues, the Barrier Discharge Igniter (BDI) stands out for its capability to generate non-equilibrium Low-Temperature Plasma (LTP), a strong promoter of ignition through kinetic, thermal, and transport effects.
Technical Paper

Glow-discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Cr(III) Sealing in Anodized Aluminium-Silicon Alloys for Brake Component

2024-09-08
2024-01-3038
Calipers and pistons for high-end car braking systems are typically realized using anodized Aluminium-Silicon alloys. Indeed, Aluminium-Silicon alloys are light materials with optimal mechanical properties and, when anodized, excellent corrosion and wear resistances. To achieve these top-notch surface properties, the anodizing process is followed by a sealing post-treatment, which significantly improves the corrosion resistance and tunes the tribological properties (e.g., hardness and friction coefficient) of the anodized pieces. Sealing consists in the precipitation of insoluble hydroxides and functional compounds (e.g., corrosion inhibitors) inside the nano-pores of the anodic layer. Nevertheless, sealing might not penetrate through all the nano-porous structure of the anodic layer. Thus, in light of possible post-machining of sealed, anodized components, it appears fundamental to develop a tool to determine the depth penetration of sealing inside the anodic layer.
Technical Paper

Piston and Guide-Pin Rattle Noise Mitigation in Electro-Mechanical Brake Caliper

2024-09-08
2024-01-3032
The hydraulic brake caliper utilizes pressurized brake fluid to actuate one or multiple pistons generating friction between the brake pads and disc. Calipers are classified into floating and fixed type caliper. Floating caliper slides inboard/outboard direction to apply and release pressure on the outer pad. This type of caliper has rubber or spring components to maintain specific clearance for sliding characteristics. Therefore, caliper rattle noise could occur due to wheel vibrations when the vehicle is driven on unpaved roads or rough surfaces. Rattle noise is particularly pronounced in front calipers positioned closer to the driver and its susceptibility tends to increase with the weight of the caliper. The Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) caliper has gained substantial attention in automotive industry for its advantages features including reduced brake drag, optimized vehicle layout and precise brake control.
X