Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
For the purpose of achieving carbon-neutrality in the mobility sector by 2050, hydrogen can play a crucial role as an alternative energy carrier, not only for direct usage in fuel cell-powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines. This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble engine with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern engines. An alternative and more pragmatic lagrangian 3D-CFD approach offers opportunities for a significant reduction in computational effort without sacrificing reliability.
Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are gaining interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. NOx emission is still a problem for H2 ICE and can be managed operating the engine with lean air fuel ratio all over the engine map. This combustion strategy will challenge the boosting system as lean H2 combustion will require quite higher air flow compared to diesel for the same power density in steady state. Similar problem will show up in transient response particularly when acceleration starts from low load and the exhaust gases enthalpy is very poor and insufficient to spin the turbine. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

The influence of design operating conditions on engine coolant pump absorption in real driving scenarios.

2024-06-12
2024-37-0015
Reducing CO2 emissions in on-the-road transport is important to limit global warming and follow a green transition towards net zero Carbon by 2050. In a long-term scenario, electrification will be the future of transportation. However, in the mid-term, the priority should be given more strongly to other technological alternatives (e.g., decarbonization of the electrical energy and battery recharging time). In the short- to mid-term, the technological and environmental reinforcement of ICEs could participate in the effort of decarbonization, also matching the need to reduce harmful pollutant emissions, mainly during traveling in urban areas. Engine thermal management represents a viable solution considering its potential benefits and limited implementation costs compared to other technologies. A variable flow coolant pump actuated independently from the crankshaft represents the critical component of a thermal management system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: a 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty truck engines are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy required on-board, in order to achieve a range comparable to that of diesels. This paper considers a commercial 6-cylinder engine with a displacement of 12.8 L, developed in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver more than 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the CNG configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW at 1800 rpm. Maintaining the same combustion chamber design of the last version, a theoretical study is carried out in order to run the engine on Hydrogen, compressed at 700 bar. The study is based on GT-Power simulations, adopting a predictive combustion model, calibrated with experimental results. The study shows that the implementation of a combustion system running on lean mixtures of Hydrogen, permits to cancel the emissions of CO2, while maintaining the same power output of the CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

2024-06-04
2024-01-5061
The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.
Standard

Test Method for the Determination of Water Concentration in Polyol Ester and Diester Aerospace Lubricants by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

2024-05-17
CURRENT
ARP5991B
The test method describes the procedure for the direct determination of water concentration in polyol ester and diester based aerospace lubricants by commercially available automated coulometric Karl Fischer titration instruments. The method was validated to cover the water concentration range of 150 to 3500 µg/g. The method may also be suitable for the determination of water concentrations outside this range and for other classes of fluids; however, the precision statement shall not be applicable for such uses.
Technical Paper

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction Based on Geometrical Parameters with Invariant Coefficients

2024-04-24
2024-01-5056
In the present work, a new methodology for predicting the performance of centrifugal compressors is developed. The proposed method differs from existing methods found in literature by gathering principal losses in three parameters: two constants and one variable, which is a function of the compressor wheel geometrical characteristics. As those parameters are constants for a given centrifugal compressor, there is no need for additional corrective parameters in order to obtain coherent results. Indeed, the proposed methodology does not depend on the choice of the slip factor correlation for the prediction of the correct pressure ratio. However, the choice of slip factor influences the efficiency computation. The prediction of the compressor maps for two full stage centrifugal compressors is presented and they show good agreement while compared with manufacturer’s data obtained from gas stand measurements.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Condensation Particle Counter-Based Portable Solid Particle Number System for Applications with High Water Content in Exhaust

2024-04-22
2024-01-5048
The Particle Number–Portable Emission Measurement System (PN-PEMS) came into force with Euro VI Phase E regulations starting January 1, 2022. However, positive ignition (PI) engines must comply from January 1, 2024. The delay was due to the unavailability of the PN-PEMS system that could withstand high concentrations of water typically present in the tailpipe (TP) of CNG vehicles, which was detrimental to the PN-PEMS systems. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the condensation particle counter (CPC)-based PN-PEMS measurement capabilities that was upgraded to endure high concentration of water. The PN-PEMS measurement of solid particle number (SPN23) greater than 23 nm was compared against the laboratory-grade PN systems in four phases. Each phase differs based upon the PN-PEMS and PN system location and measurements were made from three different CNG engines. In the first phase, systems measured the diluted exhaust through constant volume sampler (CVS) tunnel.
Technical Paper

Combustion Timing Control Based on First Modal Coefficients of Individual Cylinder Pressure Traces

2024-04-09
2024-01-2842
When an SI engine is equipped with individual cylinder pressure transducers, combustion timing of each cylinder can be precisely controlled by adjusting spark timing in real-time. In this paper, a novel method based on principal component analysis (PCA) is introduced to control the combustion timing with a significantly less computational burden than a conventional method.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

2024-04-09
2024-01-2832
The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimization of Sealing Environment of Cylinder Head Gasket

2024-04-09
2024-01-2833
Typically, modern automotive engine designs include separate cylinder heads and cylinder blocks and utilize a multilayer steel head gasket (MLS) to seal the resulting joint. Cylinder head bolts are used to hold the joint together and the non-linear properties of head gasket provide capability to seal the movement within the joint, which is essential for engine durability and performance. The current design of cylinder head gasket mainly evaluates the sealing performance in hot and cold state through finite element analysis. The sealing performance of cylinder head gasket is mainly determined by sealing pressure, fatigue and lateral movement in the joint, which have been widely studied [1]. However, no one has been involved in the study of factors affecting sealing pressure and lateral movement in the joint.
Technical Paper

A Deviation-Based Centroid Displacement Method for Combustion Parameters Acquisition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2839
The absence of combustion information continues to be one of the key obstacles to the intelligent development of engines. Currently, the cost of integrating cylinder pressure sensors remains too high, prompting attention to methods for extracting combustion information from existing sensing data. Mean-value combustion models for engines are unable to capture changes of combustion parameters. Furthermore, the methods of reconstructing combustion information using sensor signals mainly depend on the working state of the sensors, and the reliability of reconstructed values is directly influenced by sensor malfunctions. Due to the concentration of operating conditions of hybrid vehicles, the reliability of priori calibration map has increased. Therefore, a combustion information reconstruction method based on priori calibration information and the fused feature deviations of existing sensing signals is proposed and named the "Deviation-based Centroid Displacement Method" (DCDM).
X