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Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Parameter optimization during minimum quantity lubrication turning of Inconel 625 alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid

2019-10-11
2019-28-0061
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in turning process provides as an advanced and green machining concept. The addition of nanoparticle of weight percentage parameters along with machining parameters has a significant influence on the machining characteristics and so, parameter optimization is vital role to obtain the best machining performance. In this study, MQL with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT nanoparticles dispersed vegetable-oil-based cutting fluid is prepared in turning of Inconel 625. The nanofluids are prepared by dispersing 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt% into vegetable oil-based nanofluids to improve the machining characteristics of the Inconel 625. Then Taguchi-Desirability analysis optimization method is used to evaluate the effect of MQL+ machining parameters on the turning characteristic and determine the optimal conditions combination.
Technical Paper

Function Of Taguchi Grey Relation Analysis for Influencing the Process Parameter for Getting Better Product Quality and Minimize the Industrial Pollution by Coolants in Turning of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy

2019-10-11
2019-28-0065
Cutting liquids are important for cutting titanium. In spite of the fact that ventures are discovering routes that to cut titanium dry, the properties of this material reason imperative deterrents for doing this. It is sticky, has low Thermal conductivity, and highlights a low flash point. Thus, the chips don't divert the warmth, and the work will get sufficiently hot to touch off and consume. Cutting Fluids thwart the issue by greasing up the sting, flushing the chips away and cooling the work piece. To guarantee that the cutting liquid plays out these capacities well, titanium combinations lean toward cutting liquids conveyed at a high weight, generally inside the scope of 4,000 psi. to 7,000 psi. This thinks about reports the aftereffects of a Turning test led on the Ti- 6Al- 4V compound of the symmetrical exhibit with Grey relational analysis by Taguchi Method.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Experimentation of effective clog removal method in tractors for enhanced condenser life and Air Conditioning performance during Reaper application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0015
Implementation and Experimentation of effective clog removal method in tractors for enhanced condenser life and Air Conditioning performance during Reaper application Keywords - Tractor HVAC, Condenser clogging, Trash removal method. Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Tractors in the field are exposed to adverse operating conditions and are surrounded by dust and dirt. The tiny, thin and sharp broken straw and husks surround the system in reaper operation. The tractors which are equipped with air conditioning system tend to show detrimental effects in cooling performance. The compressor trips frequently by excess pressure developed in the system due to condenser clogging and hence cooling performance is reduced considerably.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of Digital Twin for Predicting Failures in Automobiles using Machine Learning Algorithms

2019-10-11
2019-28-0159
The drastic technological advancements in designing autonomous vehicles and connected cars lead to substantial progression in the commercial values of automobile industries. However, these advancements force the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to shift from feedback-based reactive business analysis to operational-data based predictive analysis thereby enhancing both the customer satisfaction as well as business opportunities. The operational data is nothing but the parameters obtained from several parts of an automobile during its operation such as, temperature in radiator, viscosity of the engine oil and force applied over the brake disk. These operational data are gathered using several sensors implanted in different parts of an automobile and are continuously transmitted to backend computers to develop Digital Twin, which is a virtual model of the physical automobile.
Technical Paper

How to Improve SI Engine Performances by Means of Supercritical Water Injection

2019-10-07
2019-24-0235
The efficiency of ICEs is strongly affected by the heat losses of exhaust gases and engine cooling system, which account for about 60% of the heat released by combustion. Several technologies were developed to recover waste heat in ICEs, from turbochargers to ORCs, Stirling cycles and piezoelectric generation. A promising approach is to transfer the waste heat to a fluid, like water, and inject it into the combustion chamber. In such a way, the recovered energy is partially converted into mechanical work, by improving both engine efficiency and performance. In this work, the engine benefits obtained by using supercritical water as the vector to recover heat losses are analysed. Water has been chosen since it has a relatively high heat capacity and can be extracted directly from exhaust gases. A quasi-dimensional model has been implemented to simulate the ICE work cycle. Specifically, in this paper a spark ignition ICE, four-stroke with port fuel injection (PFI) has been considered.
Technical Paper

Knock Mitigation by Means of Coolant Control

2019-09-09
2019-24-0183
The potentiality of knock mitigation by means of the control of the coolant flow rate is investigated. As a first step, the dynamic behavior of the wall temperature in response to a sudden variation of the coolant flow rate is analyzed experimentally in a small displacement, 4-valve per cylinder SI engine, which is equipped with an electrically driven pump. Subsequently, the influence of the wall temperature on knock onset is analyzed through a zero-dimensional model and the Livengood and Wu integral. Finally, an experimental activity on the engine test bed is carried-out in order to evaluate the influence of the coolant flow rate and of the engine inlet coolant temperature on the knock phenomenon. Results show that, even though a retarded spark advance and a mixture enrichment are not avoidable in the early stage of knock onset, a cooling control can help reducing the time of use of these fuel consuming strategies in the case of prolonged high-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment Through an Integrated Simulation Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0198
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of the powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further increase fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. This paper presents the results from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module (a coolant valve replacing a conventional thermostat).
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

2019-09-09
2019-24-0179
In the last years, the increase of the specific power of the modern engines has required a parallel improvement of the performances of the cooling system. In this context, also the control of the oil temperature has become an important issue, leading to the introduction of dedicated cooling circuits (air-cooled or liquid-cooled). Among the two, the liquid-cooled solution results in a more compact installation in which the oil-to-liquid heat exchanger is directly mounted on the engine block and integrated in the engine cooling system. It is clear that, in a liquid-cooled solution, the design of the heat exchanger represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer (turbolator), has been developed.
Technical Paper

Validity of a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0054
Due to its high benefit-cost ratio, decreasing mechanical friction losses in internal combustion engines represents one of the most effective and widely applicable solutions for improved engine efficiency. Especially the piston group – consisting of piston, rings and pin – shows significant potential for friction reduction, which can be evaluated through extensive experimental parameter studies. For each investigated variant, the steady-state friction measurements are fitted to an empirical polynomial model. In order to calculate the associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in transient driving cycles, the steady-state friction model is used in a map-based vehicle simulation. If transient engine operation entails friction phenomena that are not included in the steady-state model, the simulation could yield erroneous fuel consumption and CO2 predictions.
Technical Paper

A New Take on Porous Medium Approach for Modelling Monoliths and Other Multiple Channel Devices

2019-09-09
2019-24-0049
The porous medium approach is widely used to represent high-resistance devices, such as catalysts, filters or heat exchangers. Because of its computational efficiency, it is invaluable when flow losses need to be predicted on a system level. One drawback of using the porous medium approach is the loss of detailed information downstream of the device. Correct evaluation of the turbulence downstream affects the calculation of the related properties, e.g. heat and mass transfer. The novel approach proposed in the current study is based on a modified distribution of the resistance across the porous medium, which allows to account for the single jets developing in the small channels, showing an improved prediction of the turbulence at the exit of the device, while keeping the low computational demand of the porous medium approach. The benefits and limitations of the current approach are discussed and presented by comparing the results with different numerical approaches and experiments.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Modeling of a Thermochemical Recuperation Scheme for Improving Spark-Ignition Range Extender Engine Efficiency

2019-09-09
2019-24-0066
Range extender (REx) engines have promise for providing low-cost energy for future battery electric vehicles. Due to their restricted operation range, REx engines provide an opportunity to implement system-level schemes that are less attractive for engines designed for highly transient operation. This paper explores a thermochemical recuperation (TCR) scheme for a 2-cylinder BMW spark-ignition REx engine using a 1-D model implemented in GT-Power™. The TCR reactor employs a unique catalytic heat exchange configuration that enables efficient transfer of exhaust sensible and chemical enthalpy to steam reform the incoming fuel. The engine model without the TCR reactor was validated using experimental emissions and performance data from a BMW engine operating on a test stand. A custom integrated heat exchanger and catalyst model was created and integrated with the validated engine. A parametric modeling sweep was conducted with iso-octane as fuel over a range of reformed fuel fraction.
Standard

Hydraulic Hose

2019-06-27
WIP
J517
This SAE Standard provides general, dimensional and performance specifications for the most common hoses used in hydraulic systems on mobile and stationary equipment. The general specifications contained in Sections 1 through 12 are applicable to all hydraulic hoses and supplement the detailed specifications for the 100R-series hoses contained in the later sections of this document (see Tables 1 and 2). This document shall be utilized as a procurement document only to the extent as agreed upon by the manufacturer and user. The maximum working pressure of a hose assembly comprising SAE J517 hose and hose connectors per SAE J516, SAE J518, SAE J1453, etc., shall not exceed the lower of the respective SAE maximum working pressure values. When using SAE J517 hose for marine applications, reference SAE J1475, SAE J1942, and SAE J1942-1. The SAE J517 100R9, 100R10, and 100R11 hoses are discontinued due to lack of demand. For DOD orders see Appendix C.
Standard

Formed Tube Ends for Hose Connections and Hose Fittings

2019-06-20
WIP
J1231

This SAE Standard provides general and dimensional specifications for formed tube ends and hose fittings. These connections are intended for general applications in low pressure automotive and hydraulic systems on automotive, industrial, and commercial products. The fittings shown in Figures 2 and 3 are intended to be retained by hose clamps as specified in SAE J1508.

It is recommended that where step sizes or additional types of fittings are required, they be designed to conform with the specifications of this document insofar as they may apply. The following general specifications shall supplement the dimensional data contained in the tables with respect to all unspecified detail.

Journal Article

Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

2019-06-11
Abstract Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan.
Technical Paper

An Ice Shedding Model for Rotating Components

2019-06-10
2019-01-2003
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that sheds from rotating components. The shedding detection is handled by coupling the ice accretion and stress analysis solvers to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A novel approach for crack propagation is highlighted where no change in mesh topology is required. The entire computation from flow to impingement, ice accretion and crack analysis only requires a single mesh. The accretion and stress module are validated individually with published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex industrially-relevant 3D cases: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop propeller. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed in the context of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft/component surfaces.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

2019-06-10
2019-01-1980
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the very hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant prescribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

2019-06-10
2019-01-1965
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
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