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Technical Paper

NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

2020-09-30
2020-01-1551
The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Bearing Oil Supply Concept of a High Power- Density Diesel Engine to Minimize Oil Pump Friction

2020-09-25
2020-28-0338
Reducing the mechanical friction of an internal combustion engine plays a major role in improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at the engine level. Hence, it is important to reduce the friction at every component and sub-system level. In the present work, the oil pump friction of a 1.5 litre 4-cylinder diesel engine is optimised by reducing the oil pump displacement volume by 20%. This could be achieved by adapting an optimised oil supply concept which could reduce the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings. A 1-dimensional oil flow simulation was carried out to predict the oil flow distribution across the engine at difference speeds. The results indicate that the oil leakage through main bearings and connecting rod bearings contribute to ~25% of the total oil flow requirement of the engine. In a conventional oil supply concept, the big-end bearing of each connecting rod is connected to the adjacent main bearing through an internal oil hole.
Technical Paper

STUDY OF EGR MIXING IN INTAKE MANIFOLD USING 1D-3D CFD COUPLED SOLVER APPROACH

2020-09-25
2020-28-0351
In this paper we are trying to study the mixing process of burnt gases from the exhaust manifold with the fresh charge entering our intake manifold into the combustion chamber. The study is carried on our three cylinder diesel engine. For the simulation of such highly pulsating flow, the boundary conditions were generated from 1D Ricardo Wave simulation & in the back end the Ricardo VECTIS 3D CFD is solving the EGR mixing in a transient phase. The mixing at each cylinder port is evaluated using the Air as well as CO2 concentration at each inlet port entry point. The EGR distribution within the port inlet tends to stabilize after 8 cycles or >5000 Crank Angle duration as is evident from the transient run. It was observed that the flow pulsations at the EGR inlet have large influence on the EGR distribution. For our Coupled CFD run we have used Realizable k-ε model which is better suited for flow involving separation, moderate swirl & the mixing of species for turbulent, pulsating flows.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Experimental Thermal Mapping and FEA Thermal Simulation for Cylinder Head for Diesel Engine Development.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0353
For upgrading/new engine development, the piston and cylinder head are the most exposed members due to amplified mechanical and thermal loadings. Mechanical loading is basically due to the combustion gas pressure in the combustion chamber and its scale can be judged in terms of peak cylinder pressure. Thermal loading is due to temperature by heat flux acting on the piston surface, cylinder liner and the cylinder head. The relative importance of the various loads applied on the head and cylinder block in operation are assessed and a method of predicting their influence on the structural integrity of the components described by doing actual test on engine test bench. So therefore, its very important to have thermal survey of the engine. The engine thermal survey test was primarily developed to measure the temperature in the head of the engine to determine if the temperatures that are measured are within the design guidelines for appropriate engine operation.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Heat Transfer Rate to Coolant from Combustion Chamber of Liquid Cooled IC Engine

2020-09-25
2020-28-0366
Heat transfer analysis in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engine is crucial to design the combustion chamber. Manufactures will always look for the durability, better engine performance and also on the material cost for designing the combustion chamber. This will be achieved by designing the efficient combustion chamber effectively. The purpose of this paper is to determine the Adiabatic Flame Temperature using stoichiometric equations and find the gas temperatures at different points in the ideal diesel cycle. These values are used in the existed heat transfer coefficient equations and estimate the heat transfer to the coolant through the cylinder wall using one dimensional heat equation. This theoretical value of heat transfer rate is compared with the experimental heat transfer rate of the three cylinder engine. The average error percentage of the theoretical and experimental values is less than the 15 %.
Technical Paper

Design and Couple Field Analysis of Uncoated and Coated Aluminium Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite Piston

2020-09-25
2020-28-0391
Piston is the most imperative part of an automotive engine in which it exchanges drive due to expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft through the piston rod. During the combustion of fuel charge inside the ignition chamber, high pressure and temperature are developed and the piston is imperiled to high mechanical and thermal stresses. The main objective of the proposed work is to analyse the stress distributions and thermal behaviour of uncoated A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC piston crown and Plasma sprayed Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia(Y-PSZ) coated A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC piston crown. A356 - 5% SiC - 10% Fly ash HMMC were fabricated via squeeze casting to improve the performance of a petrol engine. A structural model of an HMMC piston crown was made using CREO software and structural and thermal analysis was done using ANSYS. Further coupled field analysis is done to find the stress and temperature distribution on the piston.
Technical Paper

EGR Mixer Optimization for Equal EGR Distribution to each Cylinder using 1D-3D CFD Coupled Simulation

2020-09-25
2020-28-0390
Vehicles are main source of pollution contributor, producing substantial amounts of pollutants. Pollution causes the health problems, hence Emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world moving from Trem IIIA to Stage V for Off-highway vehicles. EGR has been successfully proved as a useful technology to reduce NOx by decreasing the oxygen concentration and the peak temperature of the combustion. Due to compact design and space restriction, the distance required for the homogeneous mixing of fresh air and EGR is not enough. Therefore the mixing of the EGR and distribution of the EGR over the cylinders is not equal.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Impact of Injection Timing on the Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with the blend of Microalgae Methyl Ester and Pure Diesel

2020-09-25
2020-28-0441
This paper deals with the performance, emission and combustion features of a single cylinder four stroke compression ignition engine with fuel injection timing at advancement and retardment. The current experiment was conducted on a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine fuelled with microalgae methyl ester blended with pure diesel in the proportions of 30% and 70% respectively and it was designated as B30 (30% Microalgae methyl ester + 70% Pure diesel). The present test was carried out at three different fuel injection timings such as 190 R CA (Retarded crank angle), 230 S CA (Standard crank angle) and 270 A CA (Advanced crank angle) BTDC.
Technical Paper

PROCESSING OF GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE LPG CYLINDER THROUGH FILAMENT WINDING TECHNIQUE AND CHARACTERIZATION

2020-09-25
2020-28-0450
The present work focuses on the processing and characterization of LPG cylinder made up of glass fibre reinforced composite (GFRC) material. The commercial steel LPG cylinder is difficult to handle due to more weight and easily corroded with moisture environment. To overcome this problem, composite material which has high specific stiffness, high specific strength, less weight and high corrosion resistance to moisture is used to fabricate the LPG cylinder. In this investigation, the LPG cylinder with dimensions of commercial 5 kg Steel LPG cylinder is made by filament winding technique. While fabricating, the fibres are wounded on the plastic inner container which is used as gas-tight in-liner. The specimens are prepared from the fabricated composite LPG cylinder. The material properties of composite materials are evaluated by the tensile test, compression test, flexural test, density test and impact test.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation of methanol gasoline fuel blends as a fuel for two wheeler motorcycle

2020-09-25
2020-28-0456
This paper investigates fuel properties of methanol - gasoline blends as a fuel for SI engines. Fuel properties of selected blends such as density, API gravity, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, flash and fire point, heat value, distillation and Octane number were identified and compared with gasoline fuel. These blends were namely M5 M10, M15, and M20. The blends selection was based on NITI Ayog test drive plan to run petrol vehicles on 15% methanol and availability of Methanol in India. The test was conducted on single cylinders, four stroke, and variable speed SI engine of TVS bike that is commercially used. Results suggested that in short run the fuel behavior is comparable with gasoline with very least difference.
Technical Paper

Design and development of Plastic cylinder head cover with Integrated CCV in place of Aluminum Cylinder head cover .

2020-09-25
2020-28-0468
In Current landscape, automotive makers are targeting light weighting and Cost reduction as key areas to improve Energy efficiency and Total cost of ownership respectively. One such area which is becoming increasing popular is use of Thermoplastic in various Engine application. In presented approach, Cylinder head cover for Light duty Diesel engine has been converted from Aluminum to Thermoplastic, additionally Close crankcase ventilation system is integrated in Cover. Further, a novel sealing system is designed to take care of sealing performance issues possibly caused by design of cover. Finally developed components were verified and validated at Vehicle as well as Test bed level for its Durability and reliability. Newly integrated CCV system has also verified for its function. At the end Test results were compared and further actions proposed.
Technical Paper

Improved Calculation methodology for Design of Connecting rod considering Fatigue loads and stresses in IC Engine.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0335
In this work, Improved design and structural calculations of connecting rod of IC engine has been performed. From the functionality point of view, connecting rod must have the higher inertia at the lowest weight. The forces acting on connecting rod are: - Peak combustion pressure force, inertia force of reciprocating masses, Weight of Reciprocating parts and frictional forces due to cylinder wall thrust. It experiences complex loading of compression and tensile under cyclic process. Design calculations are analysed for the axial compressive/ tensile loads and considering the fatigue life of connecting rod. Calculations are based on Actual Endurance limit of connecting rod. To find out Actual Endurance limit, its working temperature factor, surface finish factor, Size factor, stress concentration & reliability factor are derived and considered for calculations. To develop failure criteria, stress patterns of fluctuating loads are properly identified.
Technical Paper

Sludge and Varnish Evaluation of Polyether Amine Gasoline Fuel Additives at “Complete Fuel System Cleaner” Aftermarket Fuel Additive Concentrations

2020-09-15
2020-01-2100
Sludge and Varnish deposits that can build up in the crankcase originate in large part from fuel and fuel components that enter the crankcase through blow-by. These deposits can lead to a variety of engine issues including piston skirt deposits, cylinder bore scuffing, stuck lifters and oil filter plugging. A test has been developed to evaluate the contribution of “Complete Fuel System Cleaner” (CFSC) aftermarket fuel additives to crankcase sludge and varnish deposit formation. CFSC aftermarket fuel additives are typically formulated with polyether amine (PEA) chemistry and at concentrations that exceed 2000ppm. Three different commercially-available CFSC products were tested, containing two different classes of PEA chemistry - propylene oxide-based PEA (“PO-PEA”) and butylene oxide-based PEA (“BO-PEA”). Two of the three products contained the same PO-PEA chemistry, but at different concentrations, to show the effect of additive dosage.
Technical Paper

Injection Process of the Synthetic Fuel Oxymethylene Ether: Optical Analysis in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2144
Oxygenated synthetic fuels such as oxymethylene ether (OME) are a promising approach to reduce the emissions of diesel engines and to improve sustainability of mobility. The soot-free combustion of OME allows an optimization of the combustion process to minimize remaining pollutants. Considering the injection system, one strategy is to decrease the rail pressure, which has a positive impact on the reduction of nitrogen oxides without increasing the particle formation. Furthermore, due to the reduced lower heating value of OME compared to diesel fuel, an adaptation of the injector nozzle is recommended. This work describes a method for analyzing the injection process for OME, using the Mie scattering effect in an optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine. The design of the 1.75 l single cylinder engine allows operation up to 300 bar peak cylinder pressure, providing optical access through the piston bowl and through a second window lateral below the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Mastering the Art of Cylinder Bore Honing

2020-09-15
2020-01-2238
Honing is a stock removal process intended to perfect bore geometry and size by removing a minimal metal layer while generating a finish pattern to provide optimum lubricant retention. The hone process produces extremely tight tolerances in straightness, roundness, size, and surface finish of cylindrical bores. The process expands abrasive stones of suitable grit and grade, under controlled pressure against the work surface while being rotated and reciprocated in the part. Combining these motions produces a cross-hatch pattern in the surface of the part being honed. In this presentation, we will show that the outcome of the honing process - not only in terms of the GD&T but also the tribology of the finished component - depending on a great number of parameters including the machine type, working conditions, tools, process fluid, and most importantly the operator experience. We will also demonstrate advantages of mechanochemical finishing versus conventional mechanical finishing.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Multiphase Physics-Based Modeling Methodology to Study Engine Cylinder-kit Assembly Tribology and Design Considerations- Part I

2020-09-15
2020-01-2230
Understanding cylinder-kit tribology is pivotal to durability, emission management, reduced oil consumption and efficiency of the internal combustion engine. This work addresses the understanding of the fundamental aspects of oil transport and combustion gas flow in cylinder kit using simulation tools and high-performance computing. A dynamic three-dimensional multiphase, multicomponent modeling methodology is demonstrated to study cylinder-kit assembly tribology during the four-stroke cycle of a piston engine. The percentage of oil and gas transported through different regions of the piston ring pack is estimated and the mechanisms behind this transport are analyzed. The velocity field shows substantial circumferential flow in the piston ring pack leading to high-velocity blowback into the combustion chamber during the expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Automated System for Diagnosing a Cylinder-Piston Engine Group

2020-09-15
2020-01-2022
The work is aimed at increasing the reliability, accuracy, information content and depth of the process of diagnosing a cylinder-piston engine group. For this, an automated diagnostic system has been developed, which includes a system unit with a monitor, special software for measuring and processing information, a measuring analog-to-digital module, adapters for connecting to the engine. The diagnostic system allows you to record the change in pressure in the cylinder for each degree of rotation of the crankshaft with an error that does not exceed 1.7%. Measurements are performed in test mode, when the crankshaft of the engine is scrolled with a starter. The measurement results are presented in the form of diagrams, text and digital values. The system also allows you to save, reproduce and transmit diagnostic information in digital, graphic and text form.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Low Frequency Vibration Signal in Detecting the Misfire of a Cylinder of an Aircraft Piston Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2023
The article describes the low frequency vibration analysis of aircraft piston engine Rotax 912 ULS. The results are based on the vibration signal made by the engine in the frequency range up to 400 Hz measured on the engine block in three axes. The aim of the research was to determine the method of detecting the misfire of individual cylinders based on the power spectrum of the selected frequencies analysis. The analysis was based on the frequencies resulting from the cyclicality of engine operation related to the frequency of the operation cycle, rotational speed and ignition frequency. The tests were carried out in one point of operation. The highest levels of changes were recorded in the Y axis - the axis of piston movement. It was shown that the vibration level changes after switching off one of the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Problems of Reducing Friction Losses of a Piston-Ring-Cylinder Configuration in a Combustion Piston Engine with an Increased Isochoric Pressure Gain

2020-09-15
2020-01-2227
Currently, there is a tendency to increase the mean workable pressure in internal com-bustion engines, to reduce their total capacity and the number of cylinders in a balanced man-ner, depending on the vehicle's class and weight in order to improve the thermal and mechani-cal efficiency of the engine. An increased engine torque at a slight angular velocity results in an increase in the mean value of the unit pressure distribution of the piston rings, especially the upper sealing ring in the initial period of the expansion stroke, which limits the slip effect affect-ing the ability to form an oil film. The essence of validity of increasing the isochoric degree of pressure gain is the use of vehicles at low speeds with a high torque. Such selection of parame-ters ensures good motion dynamics at low fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Boost System for a High Performance 2-Stroke Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2020-09-15
2020-01-2007
A 2-stroke boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine was researched and developed at Brunel University London to achieve higher power-to-mass ratio and thermal efficiency. In the BUSDIG engine concept, the intake scavenge ports are integrated to the cylinder liner and controlled by the movement of piston top while exhaust valves are placed in the cylinder head. Systematic studies on scavenging ports, intake plenum, piston design, valve opening profiles and fuel injection strategies have been performed to investigate and optimise the scavenging performance and in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process for optimised combustion process. In order to achieve superior power performance with higher thermal efficiency, the evaluation and optimisation of the boost system for a 1.0 L 2-cylinder 2-stroke BUSDIG engine were performed in this study using one dimensional (1D) engine simulations.
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