Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Model Verification of CAE with NVH-test Acting on Downsized Car Engines

2019-06-05
2019-01-1550
Today’s trend of downsized internal combustion engine development for cars is characterized with; high torque, low engine speed, low weight, high degree of cyclic irregularity, low excitation frequency due to fewer cylinders active e.g. 4-cylinder or less. Torque output 100 Nm at low engine speed 1000 rpm has become normal. This implies in respect of vibrations that it is important to control engine suspension rigid body modes e.g. roll yaw and pith ones. The rigid body modes frequencies should be low so they cannot be reached and induced by the low exciting harmonics of cylinder pressure and mass forces for low engine speeds or idling. Crucial is the rigid body modes in relation to the excitation forces. It is also important to control the overall flexible vibration modes.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use at Fiat Chrysler Automobiles for several years resulting in a fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full-potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers coupled with interior active noise control, optimized as a system, to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the vehicle. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source vibration amplitude.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling and Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Predictions of A356-T6 Aluminum Cylinder Heads Considering Ageing Effects

2019-04-02
2019-01-0534
Cast aluminum alloys are frequently used as materials for cylinder head applications in gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their lifetime. Reliable computational methods allow for accurate estimation of stresses, strains, and temperature fields and lead to more realistic Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) lifetime predictions. With accurate numerical methods, the components could be optimized via computer simulations and the number of required bench tests could be reduced significantly. These types of alloys are normally optimized for peak hardness from a quenched state that maximizes the strength of the material. However due to high temperature exposure, in service or under test conditions, the material would experience an over-ageing effect that leads to a significant reduction in the strength of the material.
Technical Paper

Thermal analysis of steel and aluminium pistons in a light duty diesel engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0546
Chromium-molybdenum alloy steel pistons, which have been used in commercial vehicle applications for some time, have more recently been proposed as a means of improving thermal efficiency in light-duty applications. This work reports a comparison of the effects of geometrically similar aluminium and steel pistons on the combustion characteristics and energy flows on a single cylinder high-speed direct injection diesel research engine tested at two speed / load conditions (1500 rpm / 6.9 bar nIMEP and 2000 rpm / 25.8 bar nIMEP) both with and without EGR. The results indicate that changing to an alloy steel piston can provide a significant benefit in brake thermal efficiency at part-load and a reduced (but non-negligible) benefit at the high-load condition and also a reduction in fuel consumption. These benefits were attributed primarily to a reduction in friction losses.  
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR, Swirl, and Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperatures of a Throttled Light-Duty Diesel Engine under Idle Conditions.

2019-04-02
2019-01-0544
Modern Diesel exhaust emissions control devices rely on catalysts for effective treatment. These catalysts must be maintained above a certain temperature, usually > ~200oC, to remain effective. Under low-load and idle conditions, the engine exhaust temperature of the engine may be significantly lower than the catalyst activation temperature. Particularly in congested urban settings, it can be common for light-duty vehicles to operate under idle and very low-load for considerable periods. This can lead to tailpipe emissions if the catalysts are not fully active. This study extends a previous study on the effects of throttling and post-injection on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions and includes the effects of EGR, in-cylinder swirl air motion, and cylinder deactivation. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty GM engine used for this study.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. In this work we explore the potential of partial fuel stratification (PFS) to control the combustion timing by altering the kinetic rates of autoignition. The PFS was produced by a double direct injection (DDI) process using a GDI fuel injector, with 70 – 80% of the fuel being directly injected early in the intake stroke (start of injection = 60° aTDC intake) and the remainder being injected during the compression stroke (200 – 325° aTDC intake, 160 – 35° bTDC compression). The amount of mixture stratification was varied by changing the late-DI timing and/or late-DI fuel fraction.
Technical Paper

Identification and Optimisation of Power Consumed by Engine Cooling Fan with a Bi-Metallic Controlled Viscous Clutch Drive in a Commercial Truck

2019-04-02
2019-01-0146
In the present scenario detailed work is happening in the field of auxiliary power loss reduction to increase the total power output from an engine. One of the main contributors is the Engine Cooling system Fan which requires drive from engine Crank shaft to reject the heat in radiator and Charge air cooler. Auxiliary loss reduction due to this can be achieved by proper thermal management of Engine Cooling system to increase energy efficiency. The power consumed by engine Cooling fan in a vehicle during its run is difficult to measure. It is nearly 7 - 9% for a 180hp engine in Commercial truck application. This loss can be reduced if we rightly balance the subsystems of engine cooling and reduce the fan duty. Now most of the Commercial vehicle engine cooling system fan drives are changed from fixed to viscous clutch. Further scope is identified in optimizing the viscous fan clutch if its characteristics changes from ON-OFF to modulating.
Technical Paper

Development of 4-Cylinder 2.0L Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using 3-D CAE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0156
To satisfy the global fuel economy restrictions getting stricter, various advanced cooling concepts, like active flow control strategy, cross-flow and fast warm-up, have been applied to the engine. Recently developed Hyundai’s next generation 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine, also adopts several new cooling subsystems. This paper reviews how 3-D CAE analysis has been extensively used to evaluate cooling performance effectively from concept phase to pre-production phase. In the concept stage, the coolant flow in the water jacket of cylinder head and block was investigated to find out the best one among the proposed concepts and the further improvement of flow was also done by optimizing cylinder head gasket holes. Next, 3-D temperature simulation was conducted to satisfy the development criteria in the prototype stage before making initial test engines.
Technical Paper

Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Piston - Design Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-0243
Variable compression ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method for improving the automobile engine performance, efficiency, fuel economy with reduced emission. This paper presents a design of hydraulically actuated piston based on the VCR piston proposed by the British Internal Combustion Engine Research Institute (BICERI). In this design, the compression height of the piston automatically changes in response to engine cylinder pressure by controlling the lubrication oil flow via valves in the piston. In addition, numerical models including piston kinetic model, oil hydraulic model, compression ratio model and etc., have been established to evaluate the piston properties. The oil flow characteristics between two chambers in VCR piston have been investigated and the response behaviors of VCR engine and normal engine, such as compression pressure and peak cylinder pressure, are compared at different engine loads.
Technical Paper

Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0267
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa.
Technical Paper

Effects of the Ambient Conditions on the Spray Structure and Evaporation of the ECN Spray G

2019-04-02
2019-01-0283
The use of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) continuously increases due to the growing demand of efficiency and power output for i.c. engines. The optimization of the fuel injection process is essential to prepare an air-fuel mixture capable to promote efficient combustion, reduced fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. Good spray atomization facilitates fuel evaporation in i.c. engines thus contributing to the fuel economy and lowering the emissions. One of the key features of a multi-hole injector is to provide an optimal spray pattern in the combustion chamber and a good mixture homogenization considering the engine-specific characteristics such fuel mass-flow rate, cylinder geometry, injector position, and charge motion. This work aims to investigate the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G, serial #19).
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Fuel Effects on Cylinder Conditions Leading to End-Gas Autoignition in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0630
Currently there is a significant research effort being made in gasoline spark/ignition (SI) engines to understand and reduce cycle-to-cycle variations. One of the phenomena that presents this cycle-to-cycle variation is combustion knock, which also happens to have a very stochastic behavior in modern SI engines. Conversely, the CFR octane rating engine presents much more repeatable combustion knock activity. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of fuel composition on the cycle to cycle variation of the pressure and timing of end gas autoignition. The variation of cylinder conditions at the timing of end-gas autoignition (Knock Point) for a wide selection of cycle ensembles have been analyzed for several constant RON 98 fuels on the CFR engine, as well as in a modern single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine operated at RON-like intake conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental study of Intake Air Flow Pulsation and Resolution for a 2-Cylinder Uneven Firing (0°-540°) Naturally aspirated and Turbocharged CPCB II Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-1171
Development of cost effective 2-cylinder uneven firing engines from a 6-cylinder parent engine are associated with variation in air mass flow due to the combined effects of both engine downsizing as well the large firing gap between the cylinders especially 540°. This affects the turbocharger performance & durability and also engine emissions due to fluctuations in the air mass flow. This paper investigates the effects of engine geometries such as Stroke, Valve Overlap, Cam profiles, Intake and exhaust manifold configuration and surge tank effect through One-Dimensional thermodynamic simulations and experimental tests, thus reducing the pulsation effect by 85%. Two engine configurations - Naturally aspirated engine for 15 kVA power rating and Turbocharged version for 30 kVA power rating were considered for the development study.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Feature of Several Types of Floating Liner Devices for Piston Friction Measurement

2019-04-02
2019-01-0177
The friction reduction of a piston/piston-ring assembly is effective for fuel economy of an engine, and a friction measurement method is required for developing low friction pistons, piston-rings and lubricants. Most suitable method for friction measurement for piston assemblies is “floating liner method”. It has load sensors between a floating cylinder liner and cylinder block, and the sensors can detect friction force acting on the liner. Many apparatuses using floating liner method are developed. They are roughly divided to two categories. In one of them, floating liner is supported by load-washers which axis is set parallel to the center line of the cylinder liner. In another type, floating liner is supported by three-component force sensors installed on the side face of the cylinder. In this paper, five types of floating liner devices were compared.
Technical Paper

mDSF: Improved Fuel Efficiency, Drivability and Vibrations via Dynamic Skip Fire and Miller Cycle Synergies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0227
mDSF is a novel cylinder deactivation technology developed at Tula Technology, which combines the torque control of Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) with Miller cycle engines to optimize fuel efficiency at minimal cost. mDSF employs a valvetrain with variable valve lift plus deactivation and novel control algorithms founded on Tula’s proven DSF technology. This allows cylinders to dynamically alternate among 3 potential states: high-charge fire, low-charge fire, and skip (deactivation). The low-charge fire state is achieved through an aggressive Miller cycle with Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC). The three operating states in mDSF can be used to simultaneously optimize engine efficiency and driveline vibrations. Acceleration performance is retained using the all-cylinder, high-charge firing mode.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Simplifications on Turbulent Mixing at Varying Injection Timings in a Piston Bowl PPC Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0220
In computational fluid dynamic simulations of partially premixed combustion engines it is common to find simplifications of the in cylinder flow conditions in order to save computational cost. One common simplification is to start the simulation at the moment of intake valve closing with an assumed initial flow condition, rather than making a full scavenging simulation. Another common simplification is the periodic sector assumption, limiting all sector cuts of the full cylinder to be identical periodic copies of each other. This work studies how such flow simplifications affect the spray injection and in turn the fuel/air mixing at different injection timings. Focus is put on the stratification of fuel concentration and gas temperature due to interaction of the spray, turbulence and piston geometry. The investigated engine setup consists of a light duty engine with a piston bowl and a five-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0242
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis and Control Methodology for Linear Engine Alternator

2019-04-02
2019-01-0230
Linear engine alternator (LEA) design optimization traditionally has been difficult because each independent variable alters the motion with respect to time, and therefore alters the engine and alternator response to other governing variables. An analogy is drawn to a conventional engine with a very light flywheel, where the rotational speed effectively is not constant. However, when springs are used in conjunction with an LEA, the motion becomes more consistent and more sinusoidal with increasing spring stiffness. This avoids some attractive features, such as variable compression ratio HCCI operation, but aids in reducing cycle-to-cycle variation for conventional combustion modes. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, we have developed a comprehensive model of an LEA with a 1kW target power in MATLAB®/Simulink, and an LEA corresponding to that model has been operated in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0245
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Developing Small Variable Compression Ratio Engines for Teaching Purposes in an Undergraduate Program

2019-04-02
2019-01-0331
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the progress achieved by the Combustion Engine Laboratory at Technological University of Pereira in the practical implementation of variable compression methods adaptable to small single cylinder industrial engines. Three alternatives to vary the compression ratio have been studied and realized: the first one consists on the modification of the combustion chamber of a commercial diesel engine and its conversion to a dual ignition engine (spark and compression ignition); the second alternative involves the change of the base slider-crank mechanism of a Petter PJ1 engine by a multi-link mechanism controlled to change the piston stroke as well as the compression ratio; and the third alternative consists on the complete design and construction of a novel eccentric cam-based mechanism, developed to vary the TDC piston position, by modifying the distance between the crankshaft and the cylinder head in a custom-built developed engine.
X