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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
Increasingly stringent regulations relating to the emissions of passenger cars and commercial vehicles demand alternative powertrain technologies in order to effectively achieve the climate targets. Hydrogen can play a crucial role as alternative energy carrier regarding the EU targets for CO2-neutral mobility towards 2050. Therefore, it represents a reasonable choice not only for fuel cell powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines (ICE). This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble ICE with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern ICEs.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

How Can a Sustainable Energy Infrastructure based on Renewable Fuels Contribute to Global Carbon Neutrality?

2024-07-02
2024-01-3023
Abstract. With the COP28 decisions the world is thriving for a future net-zero-CO2 society and the and current regulation acts, the energy infrastructure is changing in direction of renewables in energy production. All industry sectors will extend their share of direct or indirect electrification. The question might arise if the build-up of the renewables in energy production is fast enough. Demand and supply might not match in the short- and mid-term. The paper will discuss the roadmaps, directions and legislative boundary parameter in the regenerative energy landscape and their regional differences. National funding on renewables will gain an increasing importance to accelerate the energy transformation. The are often competing in attracting the same know-how on a global scale. In addition the paper includes details about energy conversion, efficiency as well as potential transport scenarios from production to the end consumer.
Technical Paper

Acoustic quality assurance during End of Line engine test approval

2024-06-12
2024-01-2922
Liebherr Machines Bulle SA designs and produces High-quality diesel engines, injection systems as well as hydraulic components. Liebherr has an Acoustic End of Line (A-EoL) system on serial test benches. All engines are measured, and noises are evaluated by operators. This subjective evaluation leads to dispersion on the evaluations, particularly for whining noise. To achieve Swiss quality requirements and ensure customer satisfaction, Liebherr wishes to define a new methodology to find a quantitative and objective criterion to set a robust engine noise compliance standard. This new methodology is based on near field microphone measurement of an engine run-down. First, whining noise signatures are extracted from the raw signal. Secondly, psychoacoustic indicators are calculated on the isolated signatures. Thresholds are then established to validate engine deliveries.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen High Pressure Direct Injection Toward Future Emissions Compliance: Optimizing Engine-Out NOx and Thermal Efficiency

2024-06-12
2024-37-0005
By building on mature internal combustion engine (ICE) hardware combined with dedicated hydrogen (H2) technology, the H2-ICE has excellent potential to accelerate CO2 reduction. H2-ICE concepts can therefore contribute to realizing the climate targets in an acceptable timeframe. In the landscape of H2-ICE combustion concepts, High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI™) is an attractive option considering its high thermal efficiency, wide load range and its applicability to on-road as well as off-road heavy-duty equipment. Still, H2-HPDI is characterized by diffusion combustion, giving rise to significant NOx emissions. In this paper, the potential of H2-HPDI toward compliance with future emissions legislation is explored on a 1.8L single-cylinder research engine. With tests on multiple load-speed points, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was shown to be an effective measure for reducing engine-out NOx, although at the cost of a few efficiency points.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an optimal engine configuration for a SI Engine Fueled with Ethanol for Stationary Applications

2024-06-12
2024-37-0024
This work aims at investigating the optimal configuration of an internal combustion engine fueled with bio-ethanol for improving its brake power and efficiency as well as for reducing the NOx emissions, in stationary applications. A turbocharged spark ignition engine characterized by a single-point injection was preliminarily considered; subsequently, a direct injection configuration was investigated. For both cases, a 1-D numerical model was developed to compare the injection configurations under stoichiometric conditions and different spark timings. The analysis shows that the direct injection guarantees: a limited improvement of brake power and efficiency when the same spark timing is adopted, while NOx emissions increases by 20%; an increase of 6% in brake power and 2 percentage points in brake thermal efficiency by adopting the knock limited spark advance, but an almost double NOx emissions increase.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Assessing Heavy Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions for Qualification as a Zero Emissions Vehicle

2024-06-12
2024-37-0007
The global transportation industry, and road freight in particular, faces formidable challenges in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions; both Europe and the US have already enabled legislation with CO2 / GHG reduction targets. In Europe, targets are set on a fleet level basis: a CO2 baseline has already been established using Heavy Duty Vehicle (HDV) data collected and analyzed by the European Environment Agency (EEA) in 2019/2020. This baseline data has been published as the reference for the required CO2 reductions. More recently, the EU has proposed a Zero Emissions Vehicle definition of 3g CO2/t-km. The Zero Emissions Vehicle (ZEV) designation is expected to be key to a number of market instruments that improve the economics and practicality of hydrogen trucks. This paper assesses the permissible amount of carbon-based fuel in hydrogen fueled vehicles – the Pilot Energy Ratio (PER) – for each regulated subgroup of HDVs in the baseline data set.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

2024-06-12
2024-37-0008
The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
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