India is the world's largest two-wheeler (2Wh) market. With the proportion of its middle class rapidly rising, 2Wh sales and the resulting emissions, are expected to grow exponentially. The decision to leap-frog from BSIV to BSVI emission norms shows India's commitment to clean up its atmosphere. As of now, the regulation mandates Gaseous Pollutant (CO, HC, NOx) emission limits for all 2Whs. However, only 2Whs powered by Direct Injection (DI) engines have a particulate limit (PM & PN). Also, most of the 2Whs manufactured in India are powered by gasoline engines using the Port Fuel Injection (PFI) technology, and hence by definition particulate emission limits do not apply. Particulates when inhaled - especially of the ultrafine sizes capable of entering the blood stream - pose a serious health risk. Therefore, it became imperative to investigate the particulate emission levels of the 2Whs.
With the implementation of BS6 standards, there is an increased focus on reducing particulate matter and particulate number emissions from gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. The direct injection process can lead to increased soot formation, which poses environmental concerns. GPFs are effective in capturing particulate matter (PM) and Particulate number (PN) but their calibration is critical to ensure optimal performance and emissions compliance. This paper presents a study on the calibration of Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) to comply with Bharat Stage-6 (BS6) emissions norms. The main focus is on thermal management, soot loading, ash loading and the unique challenges faced in the Indian market. Thermal management strategies include active and passive methods to optimize GPF regeneration and prevent thermal degradation. Active RGN mechanism involves advanced control on engine to achieve target temperature and sufficient oxygen to react with soot.
The present work discusses the potential benefits of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and artificial intelligence (AI) in the design and optimization of hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2ICEs). A Machine Learning (ML) model is developed and applied to the CFD simulation data to identify optimal injection system parameters on the Sandia H2ICE Engine to improve the mixing. This approach can aid in developing predictive ML models to guide the design of future H2ICEs. For the current engine configuration, it is observed that hydrogen (H2) gas injection contributes mixing of H2 with air. If the injector parameters are optimized, mixture preparation is better and eventually combustion. A base CFD model is validated from the Sandia H2ICE engine data against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data for velocity and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) data for H2 mass fraction.
India has recently shifted from BSVI 1.0 emissions norms to BSVI 2.0 RDE (Real Drive Emission) norms ready with implementation of conformity factors for the measurement of on-road emissions. The discrepancies between emission values measured in the laboratory (under controlled ambient conditions) and actual emission values on the road (under real driving conditions) will be reduced with the implementation of BSVI 2.0. Fuel impacts the vehicular tail pipe emission in a greater way and various regulated emission pollutants are reduced significantly. Government initiated fuel formulations like oxygenated fuels (E10 & E20) and OMCs (IOCL) initiated differentiated diesel fuels plays significant role in achieving the targets for real driving emissions.
Closed crankcase ventilation prevent harmful gases from entering atmosphere thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions. Ventilation system carries blowby gases leaking through combustion process along with oil mist to Engine intake system. Major sources of blowby often occurs from leak in combustion chamber through piston rings, leaks from turbo shafts & valve guides. Oil mist carried away by blowby gases gets separated using filtration media. Fleece type separation media has high separation efficiency for particles above 10 microns. Efficiency drops if mist particle is below 10-micron size. Low size aerosol mist generally forms due to flash boiling on piston under crown area and on shafts of turbo charger due to high speeds combined with elevated oil temperatures. High power density diesel engine is taken for our study. It produces low particle size oil mist which contributes to aerosol emission of 3 gm/hr when operated at rated speed.
The demand for Compressed Biogas (CBG) as an alternative fuel to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is rapidly increasing due to its renewable nature and environmental benefits. However, CBG has a different gas composition than CNG, which may require hardware changes in fuel system to adapt to these variations while ensuring the same performance. Fuel delivery system of CNG vehicle comprises of fuel storage tank, fuel delivery circuit, pressure regulator, fuel rail and injector. Performance of a fuel injector and pressure regulator are critical factors in the efficient and effective delivery of gaseous fuel to engine. This paper theoretically examines fuel flow requirement of injectors with different gas compositions such as CNG, CBG, G25, G20 and taking in consideration other factors impacting overall performance. This paper defines one of the approaches to accommodate the variation in fuel composition and rail pressure while targeting same engine performance.
Methanol, a fuel obtainable through the capture and conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), has garnered attention as a suitable alternative fuel for gasoline. Methanol-gasoline blends, characterized by their high-octane rating, commendable performance, and reduced carbon emissions, present themselves as promising alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. In the present study, a comprehensive comparative analysis was conducted to assess the performance and emissions characteristics of unmodified vehicles utilizing methanol blends at lower concentrations, ranging up to 30%, in gasoline. The research focused on two distinct classes of vehicles commonly found on the roads of India: those compliant with BS-IV (Euro IV) and BS-VI (Euro VI) emission standards. Experimental evaluations were carried out on a chassis dynamometer, with the vehicles subjected to the Worldwide Harmonized Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) and Wide open throttle (WOT) driving tests.
Optimizing weight, cost and friction is critically focused in most modern powertrains. Lesser components in drive trains makes the systems` lightweight and more efficient. This paper explains the idea of integrating a fuel pump and a vacuum pump drive system on to the main camshaft eliminating many rotating & static parts in a two valve per cylinder push-rod type actuated 4-cylinder diesel engine, thereby reducing overall weight, cost and drive losses. The modified camshaft will now drive oil pump, vacuum pump, fuel pump and valve train together. The existing camshaft is extended with a slot at one end and a three lobed cam made of higher grade material is press fitted on to the said portion with an additional journal bearing face added. Proposed camshaft design is evaluated for handling higher power transmission considering multiple drives are connected.
Following global trends of increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant regulations, India will likely introduce within the next decade equivalent Bharat Stage (BS) regulations for Diesel engines requiring simultaneous reduction in CO2 emissions and up to 90% reduction in NOx emission from current BS-VI levels. Consequently, automakers are likely to face tremendous challenges in meeting such emission reduction requirements while maintaining performance and vehicle total cost of ownership (TCO), especially in the Indian market which has experienced significant tightening of emission regulation during the past decade. Therefore, it is conceivable that cost effective approaches for improving existing diesel engines platforms for future regulations would be of high strategic importance for automakers.
Liquid fuel storage system stores the fuel to facilitate vehicle running for desired range. Fuel system being a safety critical component is designed to endure varied environmental condition and defined robustness for all usage conditions. Liquid fuel system consists of three major systems viz. filling system, storage system and vapor management system. Of the three, filling system’s major function is to assist proper re-fueling of the storage system. Pre-mature shut-off, spillage and fuel spit back are the three major risks associated to judge system performance. In general, fuel filling system is connected to fuel tank via inlet pipe which houses a flapper to avoid fuel spillage from filler neck. Fuel filling creates positive pressure inside the tank which causes tank to bulge. In process of regaining the shape fuel is pushed out of the inlet pipe to neck which might cause spillage. A one-way valve mechanism (flapper) is added to restrict fuel spillage.
As emissions standards become more stringent, OEMs are pushing engines to run on leaner fuel mixtures, which puts increased thermal stress on components, particularly pistons, causing them to operate at higher temperatures. This requires more robust design and rigorous testing of components. Telemetry methods offer accurate and real-time feedback, allowing designers to test components at various operating conditions, providing more flexibility than other traditional methods. Piston temperature measurement is a critical aspect of engine development because it directly affects engine performance and durability. Among the various techniques available for this purpose, telemetry methods have gained considerable attention in recent years. This method involves integrating temperature sensors and transmitter on the piston, which transmit temperature data wirelessly to a receiver outside the engine.
Automotives are provided with lot of intelligence that monitors, controls, actuates, and diagnose the various aspects of vehicle functionalities. One of the critical parameters required to monitor is Vehicle fuel level. Fuel level in the vehicle is key input for engine performance, drivability, and fuel level indication in Instrumentation cluster for customer. Most economic and reliable fuel level sensor is resistive sensor with float. The purpose of this paper is to address the wrong fuel level indication in Vehicle level. Wrong fuel level indication may be due to malfunction of Instrumentation cluster signal input or Fuel level sensor function. To verify this, Instrumentation cluster is tested with HIL system instead of real time Fuel level sensor. By configuring the HIL module to analogue resistance channel, cluster is tested for fuel level bar indication. Fuel level sensor is tested by Vehicle level fuel calibration and exact issue is simulated.
Ethanol-gasoline blended fuels have been widely implemented in Indian markets followed by the GOIs road map as ethanol reduces life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and improves anti-knock performance. However, its effects on engine out emissions including particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines still need further investigation. In this study, the effect of ethanol blended gasoline fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%) on emissions and catalyst conversion efficiencies on a 1.2-liter 3-cylinder turbo GDI miller cycle engine is investigated. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuel enhances the RON of the blended fuels, and oxygen content and changes the distillation temperature. Advancing Ignition timing, lambda biasing, Mode based SOI has been tested. Test bench results indicated that with the E10 blend all pollutant conversion is at 98% in all operating points. With E20 blend the NOx emission conversion efficiency is dropped to ~60%.
Throughout the world the efforts are being carried out to reduce the GHG emissions from transportation sector. As Volvo Group is a signatory of SBTi and having internal target of Carbon neutrality by 2040, we have intensified & also diversified our R&D efforts to develop powertrains of the future having mix of conventional, various alternate fuels, electric etc. There will not be a unique solution or strategy suiting for all the markets in the world. Each market will have its own motivation & factors which OEMs need to consider while deciding the short term, midterm & long-term strategy for powertrain technology. Accordingly, OEMs must be ready with product mix suitable for all global markets. This paper will talk about the efforts taken and lessons learned during development of Hydrogen fueled IC Engine. We used 8L Diesel IC engine as a base to convert it to Hydrogen powered IC engine, in a retrofit spirit, so that with minimum changes we could make the working prototype.
Hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2 ICE) offer a cost-effective solution to decarbonize transport by combining a carbon-neutral fuel with the mature and established internal combustion engine technology. While vehicles running with hydrogen have been demonstrated over the years, this fuel's physical and chemical properties require modifications and upgrades on the vehicle from an engine and system-level perspective. In addition, market-specific regulatory and economic factors can also constrain the realization of optimal hydrogen powertrain architectures. Therefore, this paper reviews the impact of hydrogen use on combustion, injection, air management, and after-treatment systems, indicating the different strategies used to enable effective H2-ICE strategies from an efficiency, cost, and safety standpoint.