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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

For the purpose of achieving carbon-neutrality in the mobility sector by 2050, hydrogen can play a crucial role as an alternative energy carrier, not only for direct usage in fuel cell-powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines. This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble engine with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern engines. An alternative and more pragmatic lagrangian 3D-CFD approach offers opportunities for a significant reduction in computational effort without sacrificing reliability.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen High Pressure Direct Injection Toward Future Emissions Compliance: Optimizing Engine-Out NOx and Thermal Efficiency

By building on mature internal combustion engine (ICE) hardware combined with dedicated hydrogen (H2) technology, the H2-ICE has excellent potential to accelerate CO2 reduction. H2-ICE concepts can therefore contribute to realizing the climate targets in an acceptable timeframe. In the landscape of H2-ICE combustion concepts, High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI™) is an attractive option considering its high thermal efficiency, wide load range and its applicability to on-road as well as off-road heavy-duty equipment. Still, H2-HPDI is characterized by diffusion combustion, giving rise to significant NOx emissions. In this paper, the potential of H2-HPDI toward compliance with future emissions legislation is explored on a 1.8L single-cylinder research engine. With tests on multiple load-speed points, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was shown to be an effective measure for reducing engine-out NOx, although at the cost of a few efficiency points.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of an optimal engine configuration for a SI Engine Fueled with Ethanol for Stationary Applications

This work aims at investigating the optimal configuration of an internal combustion engine fueled with bio-ethanol for improving its brake power and efficiency as well as for reducing the NOx emissions, in stationary applications. A turbocharged spark ignition engine characterized by a single-point injection was preliminarily considered; subsequently, a direct injection configuration was investigated. For both cases, a 1-D numerical model was developed to compare the injection configurations under stoichiometric conditions and different spark timings. The analysis shows that the direct injection guarantees: a limited improvement of brake power and efficiency when the same spark timing is adopted, while NOx emissions increases by 20%; an increase of 6% in brake power and 2 percentage points in brake thermal efficiency by adopting the knock limited spark advance, but an almost double NOx emissions increase.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Guided Port Injection of Hydrogen as An Approach for Reducing Cylinder-To-Cylinder Deviations in Spark-Ignited H2 Engines – A Numerical Investigation

The reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and ever stricter regulations on pollutant emissions in the transport sector require research and development of new, climate-friendly propulsion concepts. The use of renewable hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines promises to provide a good solution especially for commercial vehicles. For optimum efficiency of the combustion process, hydrogen-specific engine components are required, which need to be tested on the test bench and analysed in simulation studies. This paper deals with the simulation-based investigation and optimisation of fuel injection in a 6-cylinder PFI commercial vehicle engine, which has been modified for hydrogen operation starting from a natural gas engine concept.
Technical Paper

Acoustic quality assurance during End of Line engine test approval

Liebherr Machines Bulle SA designs and produces High-quality diesel engines, injection systems as well as hydraulic components. Liebherr has an Acoustic End of Line (A-EoL) system on serial test benches. All engines are measured, and noises are evaluated by operators. This subjective evaluation leads to dispersion on the evaluations, particularly for whining noise. To achieve Swiss quality requirements and ensure customer satisfaction, Liebherr wishes to define a new methodology to find a quantitative and objective criterion to set a robust engine noise compliance standard. This new methodology is based on near field microphone measurement of an engine run-down. First, whining noise signatures are extracted from the raw signal. Secondly, psychoacoustic indicators are calculated on the isolated signatures. Thresholds are then established to validate engine deliveries.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.

Test Method for the Determination of Water Concentration in Polyol Ester and Diester Aerospace Lubricants by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

The test method describes the procedure for the direct determination of water concentration in polyol ester and diester based aerospace lubricants by commercially available automated coulometric Karl Fischer titration instruments. The method was validated to cover the water concentration range of 150 to 3500 µg/g. The method may also be suitable for the determination of water concentrations outside this range and for other classes of fluids; however, the precision statement shall not be applicable for such uses.
Journal Article

Unveiling the Potential of Hydrogen in a Downsized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Performance and Emissions Experimental Study

Abstract The transportation sector’s growing focus on addressing environmental and sustainable energy concerns has led to a pursuit of the decarbonization path. In this context, hydrogen emerges as a promising zero-carbon fuel. The ability of hydrogen fuel to provide reliable performance while reducing environmental impact makes it crucial in the quest for net zero targets. This study compares gasoline and hydrogen combustion in a single-cylinder boosted direct injection (DI) spark ignition engine under various operating conditions. Initially, the engine was run over a wide range of lambda values to determine the optimal operating point for hydrogen and demonstrate lean hydrogen combustion’s benefits over gasoline combustion. Furthermore, a load sweep test was conducted at 2000 rpm, and the performance and emission results were compared between gasoline and optimized hydrogen combustion. An in-depth analysis was conducted by varying fuel injection time and pressure.
Journal Article

Optimizing Fuel Injection Timing for Multiple Injection Using Reinforcement Learning and Functional Mock-up Unit for a Small-bore Diesel Engine

Abstract Reinforcement learning (RL) is a computational approach to understanding and automating goal-directed learning and decision-making. The difference from other computational approaches is the emphasis on learning by an agent from direct interaction with its environment to achieve long-term goals [1]. In this work, the RL algorithm was implemented using Python. This then enables the RL algorithm to make decisions to optimize the output from the system and provide real-time adaptation to changes and their retention for future usage. A diesel engine is a complex system where a RL algorithm can address the NOx–soot emissions trade-off by controlling fuel injection quantity and timing. This study used RL to optimize the fuel injection timing to get a better NO–soot trade-off for a common rail diesel engine. The diesel engine utilizes a pilot–main and a pilot–main–post-fuel injection strategy.
Journal Article

Combustion Analysis of Active Pre-Chamber Design for Ultra-Lean Engine Operation

Abstract In this article, the effects of mixture dilution using EGR or excessive air on adiabatic flame temperature, laminar flame speed, and minimum ignition energy are studied to illustrate the fundamental benefits of lean combustion. An ignition system developing a new active pre-chamber (APC) design was assessed, aimed at improving the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) of a 1.5 L four-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The engine combustion process was simulated with the SAGE detailed chemistry model within the CONVERGE CFD tool, assuming the primary reference fuel (PRF) to be a volumetric mixture of 93% iso-octane and 7% n-heptane. The effects of design parameters, such as APC volume, nozzle diameter, and nozzle orientations, on ITE were studied. It was found that the ignition jet velocity from the pre-chamber to the main chamber had a significant impact on the boundary heat losses and combustion phasing.
Journal Article

Hydrogen Injection Position Impact: Experimental Analysis of Central Direct Injection and Side Direct Injection in Engines

Abstract A detailed investigation was carried out on the performance, combustion, and emissions of a single-cylinder direct injection hydrogen spark ignition (SI) engine with either a side-mounted direct injection (SDI) or a centrally installed direct injection (CDI) injector. The first part of the study analyzed the performance and emissions characteristics of CDI and SDI engine operations with different injection timings and pressures. This was followed by comparing the engine’s performance and emissions of the CDI and SDI operations at different engine speeds and relative air-to-fuel ratios (lambda) with the optimized injection pressure and timings. Furthermore, the performance and emission attributes of the hydrogen engine with the CDI and SDI setups were conducted at a fixed λ value of 2.75 across a broad spectrum of engine loads. The study’s main outcome demonstrates that both direct injection systems produced near-zero CO2, CO, and HC emissions.
Journal Article

Suitability Study of Biofuel Blend for Light Commercial Vehicle Application under Real-World Transient Operating Conditions

Abstract Driving schedule of every vehicle involves transient operation in the form of changing engine speed and load conditions, which are relatively unchanged during steady-state conditions. As well, the results from transient conditions are more likely to reflect the reality. So, the current research article is focused on analyzing the biofuel-like lemon peel oil (LPO) behavior under real-world transient conditions with fuel injection parameter MAP developed from steady-state experiments. At first, engine parameters and response MAPs are developed by using a response surface methodology (RSM)-based multi-objective optimization technique. Then, the vehicle model has been developed by incorporating real-world transient operating conditions. Finally, the developed injection parameters and response MAPs are embedded in the vehicle model to analyze the biofuel behavior under transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Robust Adaptive Control for Dual Fuel Injection Systems in Gasoline Engines

The paper presents a robust adaptive control technique for precise regulation of a port fuel injection + direct injection (PFI+DI) system, a dual fuel injection configuration adopted in modern gasoline engines to boost performance, fuel efficiency, and emission reduction. Addressing parametric uncertainties on the actuators, inherent in complex fuel injection systems, the proposed approach utilizes an indirect model reference adaptive control scheme. To accommodate the increased control complexity in PFI+DI and the presence of additional uncertainties, a nonlinear plant model is employed, incorporating dynamics of the exhaust burned gas fraction. The primary objective is to optimize engine performance while minimizing fuel consumption and emissions in the presence of uncertainties. Stability and tracking performance of the adaptive controller are evaluated to ensure safe and reliable system operation under various conditions.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.