In order to meet stringent emission targets and to achieve better fuel efficiency, closed loop air mass control strategies have become essential across all vehicle segments. Closed loop air mass control mandates measuring fresh air mass entering the engine combustion chamber. However, in Naturally Aspirated (NA) engines, while measuring air mass using conventional methods such as Hot Film Air mass (HFM) sensor, heavy pulsations in the Air-intake results in errors which would impact closed loop air mass control and lead to inconsistencies in emissions. To address this issue, we studied different approaches using HFM sensor with Resonator, differential pressure sensor across the intake air filter and Lambda based air mass control. Based on this empirical study we found that modelling air mass with differential pressure sensor using Bernoulli’s principle (Flow rate ∝ √Differential pressure) results in higher accuracies compared to conventional methods.
With the increasing focus on reducing CO2 emissions to combat global warming and climate change, the automotive industry is exploring near zero-emission alternative fuels to replace traditional fossil-based fuels like diesel, gasoline, and CNG. Methanol is a promising alternative fuel that is being evaluated in India due to its easy transportation and storage, as well as its production scalability and availability potential. This study focuses on the retro-fitment solution of M100 (pure methanol) SI port-fuel injection (PFI) mode of combustion. A heavy duty single-cylinder engine test setup was used to assess methanol SI combustion characteristic. Lean operation strategy has been investigated. At lean mixture conditions a significant drop in NOX and CO emissions was achieved. The fuel injection techniques and the impact of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the conventional stoichiometric combustion process is highlighted.
Closed crankcase ventilation prevent harmful gases from entering atmosphere thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions. Ventilation system carries blowby gases leaking through combustion process along with oil mist to Engine intake system. Major sources of blowby often occurs from leak in combustion chamber through piston rings, leaks from turbo shafts & valve guides. Oil mist carried away by blowby gases gets separated using filtration media. Fleece type separation media has high separation efficiency for particles above 10 microns. Efficiency drops if mist particle is below 10-micron size. Low size aerosol mist generally forms due to flash boiling on piston under crown area and on shafts of turbo charger due to high speeds combined with elevated oil temperatures. High power density diesel engine is taken for our study. It produces low particle size oil mist which contributes to aerosol emission of 3 gm/hr when operated at rated speed.
Most of the vehicles running in the world with internal combustion engines use fossil fuels. The commonly used fuels available in the market are gasoline, diesel and CNG. These fuels are becoming costlier every year and generate pollutants through exhaust gases. Hence in the market, electric vehicles are effectively providing pollution-free solutions in the passenger car and lightweight carrier vehicle segments. However, off-road, heavy-duty, and stationary applications with a high load factor, in general are less favorable for battery electric scenarios since frequent charging will be mandatory and time-consuming. Hence, for these ICE applications, the replacement of an internal combustion engine is quite difficult. There are various renewable fuels like Ammonia, Methanol, Biodiesel, etc. under research tests and study. As these are renewable fuels, the cost of these fuels can be lowered during mass production.
The increasing demand for higher specific power, fuel economy, Operating Costs as well as meeting global emission norms have become the driving factors of today’s product development in the automotive market today. Substitution of high-density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters help in significant weight decrease, but it is accompanied by undesirable cost increase and manufacturing complexity. This becomes a challenge for every automotive engineer to balance the above parameters to make a highly competitive design. This work is a part of the Design and Development of 2.2 L, 4 Cylinder TCIC Diesel Engine for a complete new monocoque vehicle platform, focused on automotive passenger car application. This paper explains the selection of a suitable cylinder head gasket technology for a lightweight engine that acts as a sealing interface between the cylinder block and cylinder head.
Optimization of Cooling Airflow for improved Heat Dissipation through Radiator Authors: Paurnima Thakur, Amit Aher, Vishal Chavan, Chandrakant Palve Mercedes-Benz Research and Development India Private Limited Key Words: Radiator, Temperature, Heat Dissipation, Airflow, Cooling, Thermal Efficiency Abstract: Heat regulation is indispensable factor during operation of internal combustion engine. Automotive engine cooling system takes care of excess heat produced during engine operation. It regulates Engine surface temperature for engine optimum efficiency and plays important role in meeting CO2 emission target set by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Insufficient heat dissipation results into Engine overheating. This will affects thermal efficiency & ultimately brake specific fuel consumption of the Internal Combustion Engine. Radiator is the central component of a vehicle cooling system to monitor and regulate engine temperature and prevent it from overheating.
Following global trends of increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria pollutant regulations, India will likely introduce within the next decade equivalent Bharat Stage (BS) regulations for Diesel engines requiring simultaneous reduction in CO2 emissions and up to 90% reduction in NOx emission from current BS-VI levels. Consequently, automakers are likely to face tremendous challenges in meeting such emission reduction requirements while maintaining performance and vehicle total cost of ownership (TCO), especially in the Indian market which has experienced significant tightening of emission regulation during the past decade. Therefore, it is conceivable that cost effective approaches for improving existing diesel engines platforms for future regulations would be of high strategic importance for automakers.
As emissions standards become more stringent, OEMs are pushing engines to run on leaner fuel mixtures, which puts increased thermal stress on components, particularly pistons, causing them to operate at higher temperatures. This requires more robust design and rigorous testing of components. Telemetry methods offer accurate and real-time feedback, allowing designers to test components at various operating conditions, providing more flexibility than other traditional methods. Piston temperature measurement is a critical aspect of engine development because it directly affects engine performance and durability. Among the various techniques available for this purpose, telemetry methods have gained considerable attention in recent years. This method involves integrating temperature sensors and transmitter on the piston, which transmit temperature data wirelessly to a receiver outside the engine.
As a major checkpoint in Automotive Emission Regulation worldwide, the Real Drive Emission(RDE) has been introduced to regulate the amount of pollutants in real on-road driving conditions, where altitude also find its importance along with driving pattern. Vehicular Exhaust Pollutants such as CO, NOx, CO2, PM & PN are the main targeted items being concentrated at this stage. Among them NOx, CO & CO2 are pollutants which will vary in connection to the atmospheric ambient conditions where the vehicles are being operated. For an instance, in our targeted case of testing at higher altitudes CO & NOx levels are found to be higher than those when tested at normal RDE regulatory altitude limits. As the altitude increases, the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere decreases, which can cause the combustion process in an ICE to operate at a lesser efficient stoichiometric composition than when done at sea level.
Hydrogen internal combustion engines (H2 ICE) offer a cost-effective solution to decarbonize transport by combining a carbon-neutral fuel with the mature and established internal combustion engine technology. While vehicles running with hydrogen have been demonstrated over the years, this fuel's physical and chemical properties require modifications and upgrades on the vehicle from an engine and system-level perspective. In addition, market-specific regulatory and economic factors can also constrain the realization of optimal hydrogen powertrain architectures. Therefore, this paper reviews the impact of hydrogen use on combustion, injection, air management, and after-treatment systems, indicating the different strategies used to enable effective H2-ICE strategies from an efficiency, cost, and safety standpoint.
As per pieces of literature, 40 to 60 % of friction losses in an Internal combustion engine occur in piston-ring pack-liner assembly and, there is a significant supportive role of simulation in improving this assembly. Literature is also available which tells, how changes in pistons affect oil consumption. Thus, piston dynamics plays an important role in oil consumption. Furthermore, the Piston Movement Module simulation results also serve as a very important input for postprocessing to calculate piston ring dynamics. This research work is conducted to understand the effect of piston secondary motion, on oil consumption, blow-by, and friction. In this work, the results of ring dynamics and oil consumption simulation modules are studied with consideration and non-consideration of piston secondary motion results. The parameters like minimum oil film thickness, lubricating oil consumption, blow-by, friction, and friction power loss are investigated.
Ammonia is one of the most promising zero carbon fuels for meeting carbon neutrality targets and zero carbon emissions. Ammonia has gained a lot of research interest recently as a hydrogen energy carrier, and direct use of ammonia as a fuel in engines will aid the transformation toward sustainable energy future. In this work, the effect of ammonia shares on combustion and performance characteristics of methane-fueled SI engine is evaluated by increasing the ammonia share by small fractions (0 to 30% by volume) in the fuel mixture (CH4/NH3 blend). Experiments were performed at constant engine load of 8 Nm (BMEP of 1.52 bar), while maintaining constant engine speed (1500 rpm), stoichiometric operation (λ = 1), and optimum spark advance for MBT conditions.
Abstract At present, it is generally considered in the analysis of the secondary motion of engine piston that the piston skirt–cylinder liner friction pair is fully lubricated in an engine operating cycle. However, in practice, when the piston moves upward, the amount of lubricating oil at the inlet may not ensure that the friction pair is fully lubricated. In this article, the secondary motion of piston is studied when the transport of lubricating oil is considered to determine the lubrication condition of piston skirt–cylinder liner friction pair. The secondary motion of piston is solved based on the combined piston motion model, hydrodynamic lubrication model, asperity contact model, and lubricating oil flow model. The secondary motion equation of piston is solved by the Broyden method. The hydrodynamic lubrication equation is solved by the finite difference method. The asperity contact between piston skirt and cylinder liner is calculated by the Greenwood model.
The earlier editions of this title have been best-selling definitive references for those needing technical information about automotive fuels. This long-awaited latest edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, yet retains the original fundamental fuels information that readers find so useful. This book is written for those with an interest in or a need to understand automotive fuels. Because automotive fuels can no longer be developed in isolation from the engines that will convert the fuel into the power necessary to drive our automobiles, knowledge of automotive fuels will also be essential to those working with automotive engines. Small quantities of fuel additives increasingly play an important role in bridging the gap that often exists between fuel that can easily be produced and fuel that is needed by the ever-more sophisticated automotive engine.
A shock absorber endurance test for an automobile that was supposed to resist at least 200,000 load cycles but failed to meet the statutory fatigue limit was under examination. This is due to the breakdown of the assembly that holds the shock absorber shims. This failure occurred due to Fretting fatigue. A design improvement is being introduced to avoid fretting fatigue on the shock absorber shim assembly. FEA is used to investigate the shim assembly in order to locate the stress zone. After adding more shims to the piston, fatigue life was significantly improved. The damping forces were unaffected by the fundamental solution that was applied to make this improvement.
This study mainly focuses on the blending of Alumina and Titanium oxide nanoparticles (NP’s) in Spirulina biodiesel blends (SB20) to estimate the influence of engine (combustion, performance and emission) parameters of a diesel engine. The characterization of Al2O3 and TiO2 NP’s like SEM were reported. By using various fuel samples such as Diesel, SB20, SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO, the engine tests on the diesel engine were conducted at various load conditions. The BTE for SB20+80 ppm AO were enhanced by 12.35% and 8.4 % compared to the SB20 fuel and SB20+40 ppm AO fuel samples. The combustion parameters were improved for the NP’s as additives (Al2O3 and TiO2) fuels than the SB20 fuel sample because NP’s contain oxygen content. The parameters of engine exhaust emissions such as HC, CO and smoke are drastically diminished for the SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO fuels compared to the SB20 fuel.
This study aims to examine the effectiveness and environmental impact of using linseed and jatropha oil as biodiesels in combination with diesel. These oils were transformed through a process called trans-esterification, and three blends of ethanol, biodiesel, and diesel were prepared in E10-B20, E15-B20, and E20-B20 configurations. Ethanol was added to improve the combustion properties. The performance of these novel blends was tested in a computerized single-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine to measure brake power and emissions. It was found that the ternary biodiesel mixtures produced lower NOx and CO emissions than regular diesel fuel. In terms of performance, the E10-B20 blend reduced brake-specific fuel consumption and increased brake thermal efficiency by 6.1% to diesel. The E15-B20 blend showed a significant reduction of about 50% in unburnt hydrocarbons when compared to regular diesel at heavy load conditions.