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Technical Paper

Piston and Guide-Pin Rattle Noise Mitigation in Electro-Mechanical Brake Caliper

2024-09-08
2024-01-3032
The hydraulic brake caliper utilizes pressurized brake fluid to actuate one or multiple pistons generating friction between the brake pads and disc. Calipers are classified into floating and fixed type caliper. Floating caliper slides inboard/outboard direction to apply and release pressure on the outer pad. This type of caliper has rubber or spring components to maintain specific clearance for sliding characteristics. Therefore, caliper rattle noise could occur due to wheel vibrations when the vehicle is driven on unpaved roads or rough surfaces. Rattle noise is particularly pronounced in front calipers positioned closer to the driver and its susceptibility tends to increase with the weight of the caliper. The Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) caliper has gained substantial attention in automotive industry for its advantages features including reduced brake drag, optimized vehicle layout and precise brake control.
Technical Paper

Glow-discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Cr(III) Sealing in Anodized Aluminium-Silicon Alloys for Brake Component

2024-09-08
2024-01-3038
Calipers and pistons for high-end car braking systems are typically realized using anodized Aluminium-Silicon alloys. Indeed, Aluminium-Silicon alloys are light materials with optimal mechanical properties and, when anodized, excellent corrosion and wear resistances. To achieve these top-notch surface properties, the anodizing process is followed by a sealing post-treatment, which significantly improves the corrosion resistance and tunes the tribological properties (e.g., hardness and friction coefficient) of the anodized pieces. Sealing consists in the precipitation of insoluble hydroxides and functional compounds (e.g., corrosion inhibitors) inside the nano-pores of the anodic layer. Nevertheless, sealing might not penetrate through all the nano-porous structure of the anodic layer. Thus, in light of possible post-machining of sealed, anodized components, it appears fundamental to develop a tool to determine the depth penetration of sealing inside the anodic layer.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Dithering on Post-Catalyst Exhaust Gas Composition and on Short Time Regeneration of Deactivated PdO/Al2O3 Catalysts under Real Engine Conditions

2024-06-12
2024-37-0002
Fossil fuels such as natural gas used in engines still play an important role worldwide which however is also exacerbating climate change as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. Although natural gas engines show an overall low pollutant emissions level, methane slip due to incomplete combustion occurs, causing methane emissions with a more than 20 times higher global warming potential than CO2. Additionally, further tightening of emissions legislation is to be expected bringing methane emissions even more into focus making exhaust gas aftertreatment issues remain relevant. For lean gas applications, (Pd)-based catalysts turned out to convert CH4 most efficiently usually being supported by metal oxides such as aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Water (H2O) contained in the exhaust gas causes strong inhibition on Pd catalysts.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: A 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty engines for long-haul trucks are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy that should be stored on-board to achieve a range comparable to that of conventional fuels. In particular, this paper considers a stock engine with a displacement of 12.9 L, developed by the manufacturer in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver about 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the compressed natural gas configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW, at the same speed. Three possible alternatives to these fossil fuels are considered in this study: biodiesel (HVOlution by Eni), bio-methane and green hydrogen. While the replacement of diesel and compressed natura gas with biofuels does not need significant hardware modifications, the implementation of a hydrogen spark ignition combustion system requires a deep revision of the engine concept.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid-Electric Medium-HD Demonstrator Vehicle with a Pent-Roof SI Natural Gas Engine

2024-06-12
2024-37-0026
In response to global climate change, there is a widespread push to reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector. For the difficult to decarbonize heavy-duty (HD) vehicle sector, hybridization and lower carbon-intensity fuels can offer a low-cost, near-term solution for CO2 reduction. The use of natural gas can provide such an alternative for HD vehicles while the increasing availability of renewable natural gas affords the opportunity for much deeper reductions in net-CO2 emissions. With this in consideration, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory launched the Natural Gas Vehicle Research and Development Project to stimulate advancements in technology and availability of natural gas vehicles. As part of this program, Southwest Research Institute developed a hybrid-electric medium-HD vehicle (class 6) to demonstrate a substantial CO2 reduction over the baseline diesel vehicle and ultra-low NOx emissions.
Event

Program - Government/Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
The Government/Industry Meeting technical program is designed to provide an open forum to discuss the critical impacts that legislation has on vehicle design from R&D to customer acceptance.
Event

Attend - Government/Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
The Government/Industry Meeting technical program is designed to provide an open forum to discuss the critical impacts that legislation has on vehicle design from R&D to customer acceptance.
Event

Program - Government/Industry Meeting 2024

2024-06-12
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
Event

Program - Government/Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
The Government/Industry Meeting technical program is designed to provide an open forum to discuss the critical impacts that legislation has on vehicle design from R&D to customer acceptance.
Event

Attend - 2024 Government/Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
The Government/Industry Meeting technical program is designed to provide an open forum to discuss the critical impacts that legislation has on vehicle design from R&D to customer acceptance.
Event

Exhibit/Sponsor - 2025 Government/Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
Event

Contact - 2025 Government Industry Meeting

2024-06-12
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
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