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Technical Paper

Piston and Guide-Pin Rattle Noise Mitigation in Electro-Mechanical Brake Caliper

2024-09-08
2024-01-3032
The hydraulic brake caliper utilizes pressurized brake fluid to actuate one or multiple pistons generating friction between the brake pads and disc. Calipers are classified into floating and fixed type caliper. Floating caliper slides inboard/outboard direction to apply and release pressure on the outer pad. This type of caliper has rubber or spring components to maintain specific clearance for sliding characteristics. Therefore, caliper rattle noise could occur due to wheel vibrations when the vehicle is driven on unpaved roads or rough surfaces. Rattle noise is particularly pronounced in front calipers positioned closer to the driver and its susceptibility tends to increase with the weight of the caliper. The Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB) caliper has gained substantial attention in automotive industry for its advantages features including reduced brake drag, optimized vehicle layout and precise brake control.
Technical Paper

Glow-discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Cr(III) Sealing in Anodized Aluminium-Silicon Alloys for Brake Component

2024-09-08
2024-01-3038
Calipers and pistons for high-end car braking systems are typically realized using anodized Aluminium-Silicon alloys. Indeed, Aluminium-Silicon alloys are light materials with optimal mechanical properties and, when anodized, excellent corrosion and wear resistances. To achieve these top-notch surface properties, the anodizing process is followed by a sealing post-treatment, which significantly improves the corrosion resistance and tunes the tribological properties (e.g., hardness and friction coefficient) of the anodized pieces. Sealing consists in the precipitation of insoluble hydroxides and functional compounds (e.g., corrosion inhibitors) inside the nano-pores of the anodic layer. Nevertheless, sealing might not penetrate through all the nano-porous structure of the anodic layer. Thus, in light of possible post-machining of sealed, anodized components, it appears fundamental to develop a tool to determine the depth penetration of sealing inside the anodic layer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Design Parameters on Thermal Performance of a Vane Type Disc Brake Rotor

2024-09-08
2024-01-3040
The ever-increasing need for effective transportation puts automobile manufacturers in a situation of continuous improvement and innovative safety systems. The brake system of an automobile has always been considered one of the most critical active safety systems. Thermal characteristics of the brake are an important aspect to consider for brake disc durability and performance. The convective cooling of a brake disc is an important factor since design changes in the brake rotor can significantly improve cooling characteristics. The focus of this research is to study and optimize the disc brake rotor for a given heat dissipation rate and predict the effect of various design parameters on the thermal performance of the brake rotor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to validate Limpert’s empirical formulae for convective heat transfer coefficient, which are further used and integrated with suitable inequality and equality constraints to form optimization problems.
Technical Paper

A computational study of hydrogen direct injection using a pre-chamber in an opposed-piston engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Opposed-piston two-stroke engines offer numerous advantages over conventional four-stroke engines, both in terms of fundamental principles and technical aspects. The reduced heat losses and large volume-to-surface area ratio inherently result in a high thermodynamic efficiency. Additionally, the mechanical design is simpler and requires fewer components compared to conventional four-stroke engines. When combining this engine concept with alternative fuels such as hydrogen and pre-chamber technology, a potential route for carbon-neutral powertrains is observed. To ensure safe engine operation using hydrogen as fuel, it is crucial to consider strict safety measures to prevent issues such as knock, pre-ignition, and backfiring. One potential solution to these challenges is the use of direct injection, which has the potential to improve engine efficiency and expand the range of load operation.
Technical Paper

Computational Method to Determine the Cooling Airflow Utilization Ratio of Passenger Cars Considering Component Deformation

2024-07-02
2024-01-2975
In order to improve the efficiency of passenger cars, developments focus on decreasing their aerodynamic drag, part of which is caused by cooling air. Thus, car manufacturers try to seal the cooling air path to prevent leakage flows. Nevertheless, gaps between the single components of the cooling air path widen due to the deformation of components under aerodynamic load. For simulating the cooling airflow utilization ratio (CAUR), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used, which neglect component deformation. In this paper, a computational method aiming at sufficient gap resolution and determining the CAUR of passenger cars under the consideration of component deformation is developed. Therefore, a partitioned approach of fluid structure interaction (FSI) simulations is used. The fluid field is simulated in OpenFOAM, whereas the structural simulations are conducted using Pam-Crash.
Technical Paper

Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
Commercial vehicle powertrain is called to respect a challenging roadmap for CO2 emissions reduction, quite complex to achieve just improving technologies currently on the market. In this perspective alternative solutions are gaining interest, and the use of green H2 as fuel for ICE is considered a high potential solution with fast and easy adoption. NOx emission is still a problem for H2 ICE and can be managed operating the engine with lean air fuel ratio all over the engine map. This combustion strategy will challenge the boosting system as lean H2 combustion will require quite higher air flow compared to diesel for the same power density in steady state. Similar problem will show up in transient response particularly when acceleration starts from low load and the exhaust gases enthalpy is very poor and insufficient to spin the turbine. The analysis presented in this paper will show and quantify the positive impact that a supercharger has on both the above mentions problems.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines Using a Modified Wiebe Model

2024-07-02
2024-01-3016
Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe's formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean and efficient combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl slope angle, duct angle and the injection nozzle position were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging system selection for a hydrogen-fuelled spark-ignition internal combustion engine for heavy-duty applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favoured by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero harmful emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high air flow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims to investigate the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-liter heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Design an Air–Liquid Supersonic Ejector for Producing Aerosol Spray

2024-06-25
2024-01-5068
This study aims to design a supersonic ejector, referred to as a liquid spray gun, with a simple operating procedure for producing an aerosol spray with adjustable droplet size distributions. A CFD model was developed to determine the influence of nozzle exit position and the primary air pressure on the supersonic patterns formed within the ejectors, providing a valuable insight into their internal physics. Based on the single-phase numerical results, at an air primary pressure of 2 bar, the flow may not reach a choking condition, possibly resulting in unstable ejector operation. However, at pressures exceeding 5 bar, the jet patterns emerging from the primary nozzle cause flow separation or the formation of vortex rings. This phenomenon leads to a flow configuration comparable to the diameter of the mixing tube, thereby reducing the available area for entrainment of suction flow.
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