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Technical Paper

Parametric Investigations on Premixed Charged Compression Ignition in a Small Bore Light Duty Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2300
Achieving stable combustion without misfire and knocking is challenging in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) especially in small bore, air cooled diesel engines owing to lower power output and inefficient cooling system. In the present study, a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine used for agricultural water pumping applications is modified to run in PCCI by replacing an existing mechanical fuel injection system with a flexible common rail direct injection system. An advanced start of fuel injection (SOI) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are required to achieve PCCI in the test engine. Parametric investigations on SOI, EGR and fuel injection pressure are carried out to identify optimum parameters for achieving maximum brake thermal efficiency. An SOI sweep of 12 to 50 deg. CA bTDC is done and for each SOI, EGR is varied from 0 to 50% to identify maximum efficiency points. It was found that EGR helps in extending the load range from 20 to 40% of rated load.
Technical Paper

Wall Heat Flux on Impinging Diesel Spray Flame: Effect of Hole Size and Rail Pressure under Similar Injection Rate Condition

2020-10-30
2020-32-2313
The fuel economy of recent small size DI diesel engines has become more and more efficient. However, heat loss is still one of the major factors contributing to a substantial amount of energy loss in engines. In order to a full understanding of the heat loss mechanism from combustion gas to cylinder wall, the effect of hole size and rail pressure under similar injection rate conditions on transient heat flux to the wall were investigated. Using a constant volume vessel with a fixed impingement wall, the study measured the surface heat flux of the wall at the locations of spray flame impingement using three thin-film thermocouple heat-flux sensors. The results showed that the characteristic of local heat flux and soot distribution was almost similar by controlling similar injection rate except for the small nozzle hole size with increasing injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Free Multibody Cosimulation Based Prototyping of Motorcycle Rider Assistance Systems

2020-10-30
2020-32-2306
Due to the increasing computational power, significant progress has been made over the past decades when it comes to CAD, multibody and simulation software. The application of this software allows to develop products from scratch, or to investigate the static and dynamic behavior of multibody models with remarkable precision. In order to keep the development costs low for highly sophisticated products, more precisely motorcycle rider assistance systems, it is necessary to focus extensively on the virtual prototyping using different software tools. In general, the interconnection of different tools is rather difficult, especially when considering the coupling of a detailed multibody model with a simulation software like MATLAB Simulink. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the performance of a motorcycle rider assistance algorithm using a cosimulation approach between the free multibody software called FreeDyn and Simulink based on a sophisticated multibody motorcycle model.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption for SI Engines by Combing with Glow Plug Heated Sub-chamber and Lean Burn

2020-10-30
2020-32-2310
Lean burn gasoline engines can achieve noteworthy fuel consumption and power output. However, when the mixture becomes lean, the ignition delay increases, and the flame propagation speed becomes slow, which lead to increase the combustion fluctuation. The glow plug is usually used to solve the cold start problem in diesel engines, where the compression temperature might not be high enough to ensure the proper ignition of the injected fuel, resulting in instability combustion and increased exhaust emissions. Based on this point, the present study intends to install a glow plug to the sub-chamber. Experiments were conducted on a modified single cylinder four-stroke CI engine (YANMAR TF120V) to operate as SI engine with a higher compression ratio compared to the conventional SI engines, 15.1:1. The engine is operated at a constant speed of 1000 rpm for different equivalence ratios with different voltage of glow plug which creates the temperature variation inside the sub-chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical study on Premixed Charge Compression Ignition(PCCI) combustion for down-sized Diesel engine using CONVERGE

2020-10-30
2020-32-2308
The growing EV market and tougher EURO VI regulations require to further reduce the presence of diesel engines. However, diesel engines still have the advantages in high performance and high thermal efficiency, while It produces NOx and PM. Therefore, diesel engines should recognize the need for change. It is important to improve and practicalize innovative combustion technologies that can improve fuel efficiency without losing power in consideration of emission regulations. In that point view, the new combustion technology have been studied such as Premixed Charge Compression Ignition(PCCI) . This combustion technology can reduce both NOx and PM emissions through longer mixing time and Low Temperature Combustion(LTC) by applying advanced injection than conventional diesel combustion, In this study, numerical analysis for PCCI engine is performed to optimize injection angles that can reduce wall wetting, increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Investigations on NOx and Smoke Emissions Reduction Potential through Diesel-Water Emulsion and Water Fumigation in a Small Bore Diesel Engine

2020-10-30
2020-32-2312
In the present work, a relative comparison of addition of water to diesel through emulsion and fumigation methods is explored for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and smoke emissions in a production small bore diesel engine. The water to diesel ratio was kept the same in both the methods at a lower concentration of 3% by mass to avoid any adverse effects on the engine system components. The experiments were conducted at a rated engine speed of 1500 rpm under varying load conditions. A stable water-diesel emulsion was prepared using a combination of equal proportions (1:1 by volume) of Span 80 and Tween 80. The mixture of Span 80 in diesel and Tween 80 in water was homogenized using an IKA Ultra Turrax homogenizer with tip stator diameter 18mm at 5000 rpm for 2 minutes. The water-in-diesel emulsions thus formulated were kinetically stable and appeared translucent. No phase separation was observed on storage for approximately 105 days.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO model and a neural network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrised to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of Friction Materials Regulations for Four Latin American Countries

2020-10-05
2020-01-1615
Brakes are the most important safety device in a vehicle, however there are few barriers to manufacture, import, or sell friction materials in most of the countries, including USA. European countries, with the ECE R90 program, are a big exception. International Transport Forum published in 2016 the “Benchmarking of road safety in Latin America” report, it mentions that worldwide 17.5 people in every 100,000 die in road accidents, however Andean countries mortality rate is 23.4 and South American 21.0, considerably higher than the worldwide average.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Particulate Matter and Number Emissions from a Floating and a Fixed Caliper Brake System of the Same Lining Formulation

2020-10-05
2020-01-1633
The particulate emissions of two brake systems where characterized in a dilution tunnel optimized for PM10 measurements. The larger of them employed a fixed caliper (FXC) and the smaller one a floating caliper (FLC). Both used ECE brake pads of the same lining formulation. Measured properties included gravimetric PM2.5 and PM10, Particle Number (PN) concentrations of both untreated and thermally treated (according to exhaust number regulation) particles using Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs) having 23 and 10 nm cut-off sizes, and an Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). The brakes were tested over a novel test cycle developed from the database of the Worldwide harmonized Light-Duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). A series of WLTP tests were performed starting from unconditioned pads, to characterize the evolution of emissions until their stabilization. Selected tests were also performed over a short version of the Los Angeles City Cycle.
Technical Paper

A Priori Analysis of Acoustic Source Terms from Large-Eddy Simulation in Turbulent Pipe Flow

2020-09-30
2020-01-1518
The absence of combustion engine noise pushes increasingly attention to the sound generation from other, even much weaker, sources in the acoustic design of electric vehicles. The present work focusses on the numerical computation of flow induced noise, typically emerging in components of flow guiding devices in electro-mobile applications. The method of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) represents a powerful technique for capturing most part of the turbulent fluctuating motion, which qualifies this approach as a highly reliable candidate for providing a sufficiently accurate level of description of the flow induced generation of sound.
Technical Paper

Engine Sound Reduction and Enhancement using Engine Vibration

2020-09-30
2020-01-1537
Over the past decade, there have been many efforts to generate engine sound inside the cabin either in reducing way or in enhancing way. To reduce the engine noise, the passive way, such as sound absorption or sound insulation, was widely used but it has a limitation on its reduction performance. In recent days, with the development of signal processing technology, ANC (Active Noise Control) is been used to reduce the engine noise inside the cabin. On the other hand, technologies such as ASD (Active Sound Design) and ESG (Engine Sound Generator) have been used to generate the engine sound inside the vehicle. In the last ISNVH, Hyundai Motor Company newly introduced ESEV (Engine Sound by Engine Vibration) technology. This paper describes the ESEV Plus Minus that uses engine vibration to not only enhance the certain engine order components but reduce the other components at the same time. Consequently, this technology would produce a much more diverse engine sound.
Technical Paper

Extended Solution of a Trimmed Vehicle Finite Element Model in the Mid-Frequency Range

2020-09-30
2020-01-1549
The acoustic trim components play an essential role in Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behavior by reducing both the structure borne and airborne noise transmission while participating to the absorption inside the car and the damping of the structure. Over the past years, the interest for numerical solutions to predict the noise including trim effects in mid frequency range has grown, leading to the development of dedicated CAE tools. Finite Element (FE) models are an established method to analyze NVH problems. FE analysis is a robust and versatile approach that can be used for a large number of applications, like noise prediction inside and outside the vehicle due to different sources or pass-by noise simulation. Typically, results feature high quality correlations. However, future challenges, such as electric motorized vehicles, with changes of the motor noise spectrum, will require an extension of the existing approaches.
Technical Paper

On the effects of Turbocharger on Particle Number and Size Distribution in a Heavy - Duty Diesel Engine

2020-09-27
2020-24-0007
Particles emitted from internal combustion engines have adverse health effects. The severity varies based on the particle size as they deposit at different parts in the respiratory system. After-treatment systems are employed to control the particle emissions from combustion engines. The design of the after-treatment system depends on the nature of particle size distribution at the upstream and is important to evaluate. In heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines, the turbocharger turbine is an important component affecting the flow and particles. The turbine wheel and housing influence particle number and size could potentially be used in reducing particle number or changing the distribution to become more favourable for filtration. This work evaluates the effect of HD diesel engine’s turbine on non-volatile particle number and size distribution.
Technical Paper

Retrofit of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck: Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Architectures with Waste Heat Recovery

2020-09-27
2020-24-0015
This paper describes and compares different powertrain configurations for the retrofit of a heavy-duty Class 8 truck, powered by a 12.6 liters diesel engine. The engine is firstly equipped with an electrification-oriented organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and then coupled to a traction electric machine into a hybrid powertrain. An electrification-oriented ORC system can produce enough energy to cover the ancillary loads, which in long-haul applications for freight transportation are quite demanding. Nevertheless, only powertrain hybridization can achieve significant improvements in the overall system efficiency. Both systems may thus be implemented in the same vehicle, but an efficiency improvement is guaranteed only if the system is carefully managed so as to reach a trade-off between the requirements and potential benefits of the ORC system and those of the hybrid powertrain.
Technical Paper

An Active Safety System Able to Counter Aquaplaning, Integrated With Sensorized Tires, ADAS and 5G Technology for Both Human-Driven and Autonomous Vehicles

2020-09-27
2020-24-0019
Autonomous vehicles must guarantee safety in all road conditions, including driving on wet roads. Aquaplaning (or hydroplaning) is a phenomenon known since the beginning of automotive history, never solved by an active safety system. Currently, no countermeasure system on the market is able to effectively counteract aquaplaning: ABS, ESP or TCS are still inefficient in overcoming this situation. Latest statistical data confirm that the higher percentage of accidents, injuries and deaths are caused by wet road conditions. The aquaplaning happens when the water on the road is too much and the tires start to float causing the instantaneous loss of control. Such phenomenon occurs in human-driven vehicles, with the responsibility of the driver, but in autonomous vehicles (e.g. Level 5), the responsibility for the safety depends on the car and the reduction of the speed is not a solution.
Technical Paper

Intake O2 Concentration Estimation in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through NOE

2020-09-27
2020-24-0002
Diesel engines with their embedded control systems are becoming more and more complex as the emission regulations tighten, especially concerning NOx pollutants. The combustion and emission formation processes in diesel engines are closely correlated to the intake manifold O2 concentration. Consequently, the performance of the main engine controllers can be improved significantly, if a model-based or sensor-based estimation of the intake O2 concentration is available in the ECU. The paper addresses the modeling of the intake manifold O2 concentration in a turbocharged diesel engine. Dynamic models, compared to generally employed steady state maps, capture the dynamic effects occurring over transients. It is right in the transient that the major deviations from the stationary maps are found. The dynamic model will positively affect the control system making it more effective.
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