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Engine Failure Investigation and Analysis

2020-07-29
Engine failures can occur in a variety of equipment, vehicles, and applications. On occasion, a single vehicle type or equipment family will even experience multiple engine failures leading to the inevitable need to determine what the most likely cause of one or all of those failures was. This comprehensive seminar introduces participants to the methods and techniques used to understand the types of variables and inputs that can affect engine reliability and then determine the most likely cause of an individual engine or group of engine failures in the field.
Technical Paper

Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

2019-11-21
2019-28-2559
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India.
Technical Paper

Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

2019-11-21
2019-28-2495
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Prospects of Bio Diesel and blends as a fuel supplement for diesel engines.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2393
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Utilization of treated waste engine oil -butanol blends as fuel for CI engine operated under an optimal engine parameters

2019-11-21
2019-28-2383
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel to fuel diesel engine. Waste engine oil is causing land pollution and contamination to groundwater a lot. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of treated waste engine oil and butanol as fuel to diesel engine operated under optimal engine operating parameters. This study was conducted in four stages: Treating the waste engine oil; Preparation of blends and testing the properties; Arriving at an optimal injection timing, nozzle opening pressure, compression ratio, and intake air temperature to suit the possible blend of treated waste engine oil and butanol; Testing the possible blend under optimal operating parameters under various load conditions. The properties test indicated that 35% of butanol can be blended with treated engine oil with respect to the essential properties for fueling diesel engine. To optimize the parameters L16 orthogonal array with the Taguchi method was used.
Technical Paper

Bio diesel-an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2385
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bio-diesel fuel filter Size media and configuration for longer service interval .

2019-11-21
2019-28-2391
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment. In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Eccentric imbalance of various crank train components on Vibrations in single cylinder Diesel Engines

2019-11-21
2019-28-2417
A Vibration analysis is about the art of looking for changes in the vibration pattern and then relating those changes. Vibration generates from Excitation forces due to firing, structural properties like stiffness of the engine and dynamic response. The unbalance masses percentage variation will effect on increasing in Vibration of the diesel engine with respect to Change in Speed. Inherent vibration in engine cause due to combustion is depend upon various crank mechanism, fuel or air flow, gear wheels ,unbalanced turbocharger,etc.. Individual balancing of parts and its combined effect after assembly will totally change the scenario of vibration .Shifting of vibration pattern from Lateral to Vertical plays significant role in this. Changing an eccentric mass direction gives harmonic impact in vibration. Changes in acceleration/displacement pattern with different percentage of balancing.
Technical Paper

Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine coated with YSZ

2019-11-21
2019-28-2548
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with TBC bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion.
Technical Paper

Engine Valve Train Dynamic Analysis using 1-D Simulation Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2422
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation used to evaluate valve train systems. This paper discusses the work done on kinematic and dynamic analysis of Valve Train (VT) system of a diesel engine by using 1-D Ricardo Valdyn software. The goal is to meet optimum intake, exhaust valve timing requirement, maximize valve open area and 20% overspeed requirement. Valve train model is prepared and inputs like mass and stiffness are estimated from actual weighing and finite element approach respectively. Simulation model is used for predicting valve bounce speed, valve displacement, cam-follower contact stress and strain in the rocker arm. Initially, Kinematic analysis is carried out to study the change in valve motion characteristics such as cam contour radius, tappet contact eccentricity etc. Further to this, dynamic analysis is carried out to assess forces and stresses on valve train components.
Technical Paper

Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2532
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction DPNR System for Simultaneous Reduction of PM and NOx in Diesel Engines

2019-11-21
2019-28-2554
The Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction (DPNR) system is used for simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx in diesel engine. DPF is used to trap particulate matter in diesel engines. NOx absorber technology removes NOx in a lean (i.e. oxygen rich) exhaust environment for both diesel and gasoline lean-burn GDI engines. The NOx storage and reduction catalyst is uniformly coated on the wall surface and in the fine pores of a highly porous filter substrate. Combination of these two components in the DPNR results in a compact size of the system. The base diesel engine model validated with pressure crank angle diagram and performance parameters such as Indicated mean effective pressure. This base engine’s exhaust emission is given as an input to the DPNR system. The surface reaction is connected to the DPF through chemcon template. The surface reaction is NOx storage and reduction chemical kinetics like Lean NOx Trap. The modelling of DPNR and Base engine is done using GT-SUITE.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
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